First published in 1983, this book represents an effort to lay the groundwork for a general approach to lexical semantics that pays heed to the needs of a theory of discourse interpretation, a theory of compositional semantics, and a theory of lexical rules. The first chapter proposes a basic framework in which to undertake lexical description and a lexical semantic analogue to the classical syntactic distinction between subcategorized for complement and adjunct. This apparatus for lexical description is expanded in the second chapter. A theory of the semantics of nuclear terms along with a proposed implementation is presented in chapter three. The fourth chapter argues that a number of regular, semantically governed valence alternations could be captured in frame representations that give rise to various kinds of realisation options. The final chapter examines interaction of these phenomena with a general account of prediction or control along with the general framework of lexical representation.
1. Prepositions and Verbs; 1.1 Introduction: Methodological Preliminaries 1.1.1 Motivations for Lexical Representations 1.1.2 Lexical Semantics and the Grammar 1.2 Terminological Preliminaries 1.3 Prepositions 1.4 The Problem for Logical Form: A First Solution 1.5 Some more Preposition Meanings 1.5.1 Individuating Preposition Meanings 1.6 A Proposal Concerning English Prepositions 1.7 Lexical Representations 1.8 The Logic of Frames 1.9 Core Participant and Adjuncts 1.9.1 Preposition Meanings 1.9.2 Direct Inheritance 1.9.3 The Right Theory 1.10 Revising Semantic Compatibility 1.11 Conclusion; 2. Figure and Ground Scenes; 2.1 Introduction 2.2 A Commercial Event 2.2.1 Selling and Possessive TO 2.2.2 Buying and Source 2.3 A New Definition of Semantic Compatibility 2.3.1 Commercial Events Revisited 2.4 Lexical Representations and Knowledge Representations 2.4.1 The New Proposal 2.4.2 Some Technical Revisions and Stipulations 2.5 The Preposition for and More Commercial Events 2.5.1 Buy, Sell and Pay 2.5.2 A Note on Polysemy 2.5.3 Ex-spending the Ontology 2.6 Other Motivations for Figure and Ground 2.7 Conclusion; 3. Where are the Case Theories of Yesteryear?; 3.1 Why Case Grammar? 3.2 Some Facts about the Semantical of Grammatical Relations 3.2.1 Active and Causal Subjects 3.2.2 Change and Effective Instruments 3.2.3 Experience and Causers 3.2.4 Summary 3.3 The Hierarchy and its Function 3.4 Some Issues in the Semantics of Nuclear Terms 3.4.1 Cross-Categorical Claims 3.4.2 Optionality and Instruments 3.4.3 Kajita’s Quandary and Subcategorization 3.4.4 A Note on the Figure, and POS_TRANS; The Semantics of Valence’ 3.5.1 A Hierarchy for Verbs 3.5.2 Subcategorisation; 4. Valence Alterations; 4.1 Optional Advancement 4.1.1 Instrument Promotion 4.1.2 Dative Movement 4.2 Advancement Involving Change 4.2.1 Goal Promotion 184.108.40.206 The Patient Valence 220.127.116.11 The Goal Valaence 4.2.2 Other Rules 18.104.22.168 Container Promotion 22.214.171.124 Symmetric Predicates 126.96.36.199 Origin Promotion 4.4 Conclusion: Semantic Options versus Lexical Rule; 5. Predicaton, Control and Lexical Rules Revisited; 5.1 Infinitival Complements 5.2 Predicative PP’s 5.3 Frame Representation of Predictive PP’s
Semantics and semiology are two of the most important branches of linguistics and have proven to be fecund areas for research. They examine language structures and how they are dictated by both the meanings and forms of communication employed — semantics by focusing on the denotation of words and fixed word combinations, and semiology by studying sign and sign processes. As numerous interrelated fields connect to and sub-disciplines branch off from these major spheres, they are essential to a thorough grounding in linguistics and crucial for further study.
‘Routledge Library Editions: Semantics and Semiology’ collects together wide-ranging works of scholarship that together provide a comprehensive overview of the preceding theoretical landscape, and expand and extend it in numerous directions. A number of interrelated disciplines are also discussed in conjunction with semantics and semiology such as anaphora, pragmatics, syntax, discourse analysis and the philosophy of language. This set reissues 14 books originally published between 1960 to 2000 and will be of interest to students of linguistics and the philosophy of language.