1st Edition

Life-Cycle and Sustainability of Civil Infrastructure Systems Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Life-Cycle Civil Engineering (IALCCE'12), Vienna, Austria, October 3-6, 2012

Edited By Alfred Strauss, Dan Frangopol, Konrad Bergmeister Copyright 2013

    Life-Cycle and Sustainability of Civil Infrastructure Systems contains the lectures and papers presented at the Third International Symposium on Life-Cycle Civil Engineering (IALCCE 2012) held in one of Vienna’s most famous venues, the Hofburg Palace, October 3rd-6th, 2012. This volume consists of a book of extended abstracts (516 pp) and a DVD-ROM with 344 full papers (2515 pp) presented at IALCCE 2012, including the Fazlur R. Khan Lecture, 10 Keynote Lectures, and 333 Technical Papers from 52 countries.

    All major aspects of life-cycle civil engineering are addressed, including aging of structures, deterioration modeling, durable materials, earthquake and accidental loadings, sustainability, fatigue and damage, structure-environment interaction, design for durability, failure analysis and risk prevention, lifetime structural optimization, long-term performance analysis, performance-based design, service life prediction, time-variant reliability, uncertainty modeling, damage identification, field testing, health monitoring, inspection and evaluation, maintenance strategies, rehabilitation techniques, strengthening and repair, structural integrity, decisionmaking processes, human factors in life-cycle engineering, life-cycle cost models, project management, lifetime risk analysis and optimization, whole life costing, artificial intelligence methods, bridges and viaducts, high rise buildings, offshore structures, precast systems, runway and highway pavements, tunnels and underground structures.

    This volume provides both an up-to-date overview of the field of life-cycle and
    sustainability in civil engineering and significant contributions to the decisionmaking
    process for the purpose of enhancing the welfare of society. The aim of the editors is to provide a valuable source of information for anyone interested in life-cycle and
    sustainability of civil infrastructure systems, including students, researchers and
    practitioners from all areas of engineering and industry.

    Symposium organization


    Fazlur Khan’s legacy: Towers of the future
    M. Sarkisian


    Lessons from the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake: Emphasis on life-cycle structural performance
    M. Akiyama & D.M. Frangopol

    Minimizing the effects of uncertainty in life-cycle engineering
    A.H.-S. Ang

    Pervasive lifetime inadequacy of long-span box girder bridges and lessons for multi-decade creep prediction
    Z.P. Bažant, R.Wendner, M.H. Hubler & Q. Yu

    Life-cycle design for the world’s longest tunnel project
    K. Bergmeister

    Computational methods for time-variant structural reliability analysis
    C. Bucher

    Durability related life-cycle assessment of concrete structures: Mechanisms, models, implementation
    H. Budelmann, A. Holst & A.Wachsmann

    Life-cycle performance goals for civil infrastructure intergenerational risk-informed decisions
    B.R. Ellingwood

    Structural damage accumulation and control for life-cycle optimum seismic performance of buildings
    L. Esteva, O.J. Díaz-López, A. Vásquez & J.A. León

    Sustainable design of structures: The outcomes of the COST Action C25-WG3
    R. Landolfo

    Sustainable asset preservation at the Austrian Federal Railways
    A. Matthä


    Vibration-based health monitoring, damage identification, and parameter estimation for civil engineering structures
    Organizers: C. Papadimitriou, G. Lombaert, G. De Roeck & E. Reynders

    Dynamic methods for health monitoring and structural identification of bridges
    F. Benedettini, A. Morassi & F. Vestroni

    Structural health monitoring of a centenary iron arch bridge
    F. Busatta, C. Gentile & A. Saisi

    Structural identification of a super-tall tower by GPS and accelerometer data fusion using a multi-rate Kalman filter
    E.N. Chatzi & C. Fuggini

    Maintenance and rehabilitation of 19th century masonry buildings – life-cycle aspects
    A. Kolbitsch

    Dynamic damage identification using linear and nonlinear testing methods on a two-span prestressed concrete bridge
    J. Mahowald, S. Maas, F. Scherbaum, D.Waldmann & A. Zuerbes

    Structural health monitoring from on-line monitored vibration measurements
    T.S. Maung, H.-P. Chen & A. Alani

    Damage detection on the Champangshiehl bridge using blind source separation
    V.H. Nguyen, C. Rutten, J.-C. Golinval, J. Mahowald, S. Maas & D.Waldmann

    Fast Bayesian structural damage localization and quantification using high fidelity FE models and CMS techniques
    D.-C. Papadioti & C. Papadimitriou

    Output-only structural health monitoring by vibration measurements under changing weather conditions
    E. Reynders, G.Wursten & G. De Roeck

    Influence of the prediction error correlation model on Bayesian FE model updating results 86
    E. Simoen, C. Papadimitriou, G. De Roeck & G. Lombaert

    Hybrid genetic algorithm to system identification and damage assessment of a
    high-rise building 87
    G.S.Wang & F.K. Huang

    Non-stationary random vibration for a high-pier bridge under vehicular loads 88
    X.F. Yin, Y. Liu, J.R. Zhang & C.S. Cai

    Monitoring of a riveted steel railway bridge 89
    V. Zabel, A. Schmidt, I. Reichert & S. Höll

    Fast Bayesian ambient modal identification with separated modes incorporating
    multiple setups 90
    F.L. Zhang & S.K. Au

    Monitoring and assessment of bridges using novel techniques
    Organizers: A. Strauss & D.M. Frangopol

    Structural health monitoring system using recurrence quantification analysis of ambient vibration
    H. Furuta, Y. Nomura, K. Nakatsu & K. Yoshida

    Some difficult monitoring problems and some interesting outcomes
    B. Harvey & H. Harvey

    Dynamic testing and structural identification of “New People’s Bridge” in Verona
    K. Islami, A. Bisson, F. Casarin & C. Modena

    A year-long monitoring using in-service vibration data from a multi-span plate-Gerber bridge
    C.W. Kim, S. Kitauchi, K. Sugiura & M. Kawatani

    Optimised monitoring concepts for historical masonry arch bridges
    A. Krawtschuk, O. Zeman, A. Strauss, C. Scheidl, M. Chiari & D. Proske

    Bayesian forecasting of structural bending capacity of aging bridges based on dynamic linear model
    D.G. Lu & X.P. Fan

    Service life management of infrastructure systems – application of corrosion and moisture monitoring
    T.F. Mayer & Ch. Sodeikat

    Structural monitoring of a steel bridge with the longest arch span in Poland – selected issues
    H. Onysyk

    New approaches in evaluating vibration and physical monitoring techniques
    M. Österreicher, A. Strauss, K. Bergmeister & L. Ibáñez

    Maintenance life-cycle costs for bridges of Egnatia Motorway, Northern Greece, considering their seismic risk assessment
    P. Panetsos, A. Liolios, K. Liolios, N. Theodoulidis & P. Spyridis

    Prediction of fatigue damage accumulation in metallic structures by the estimation of strains from operational vibrations
    C. Papadimitriou, E.-M. Lourens, G. Lombaert, G. De Roeck & K. Liu

    Reliability-based inspection planning with application to orthotropic bridge deck structures subjected to fatigue
    R. Schneider, S. Thöns & D. Straub

    Probabilistic fatigue crack growth modeling for reliability-based inspection planning
    R. Schneider, S. Thöns & D. Straub

    Detection of traffic loads by structural and geodetic measurements
    C. von der Haar, S. Marx, M. Hansen & H. Neuner

    Maintenance and rehabilitation of aged bridges
    Organizers: M.A. Ahrens & P. Mark

    Precision-assessment of lifetime prognoses based on SN-approaches of RC-structures exposed to fatigue loads
    M.A. Ahrens

    Structural flexibility in relation to integrated service life design of buildings
    R. Blok & E. Koopman

    Modern bridge stock management in a regional metropolis – structural assessment, data management and cost control
    A. Blome, H. Neuß, P. Mark & U. Lambertz

    Strengthening of existing bridge decks by additional concrete layers – new research results and design rules
    J. Feix &A. Andreatta

    Inspection and maintenance of the orthotropic deck of Avonmouth Bridge
    B.I. Frey

    Asset management and life-cycle cost optimization for bridges on network, asset and element level
    M. Hoffmann &A. Kammersberger

    Analysis of influential factors and association rules for bridge deterioration using national bridge inventory data
    R.-Y. Huang & P.-F. Chen

    Examples of different strategies of bridge preservation: Part 1
    T. Klöker & D. Lehnen

    Examples of different strategies of bridge preservation: Part 2
    D. Lehnen &T. Klöker

    Research on computational method on the flexural bearing capacity of a box girder strengthened with carbon fiber sheets
    X. Liu,W.Wang, Y. Chen & Y.Wei

    Technical cycle of modern bridge maintenance – an overview
    P. Mark, M.A. Ahrens & Ch. Fust

    The application of sacrificial cathodic protection as a corrosion control measure for the protection of reinforced concrete bridges
    M. Moore, F. Jesmin, S. Tao &A. Beedles

    Nondestructive evaluation of stress state of steel bars reinforcing concrete structures
    E. Schneider, S.-K. Balijepalli, Ch. Boller, P. Bindseil & W. Kurz

    Bridge management and effective tools to ensure sustainable construction schedules
    T. Tzaveas

    Prediction models for ageing/deterioration
    Organizer: M. Petschacher

    Selective maintenance planning based on a Markovian approach
    N. Basso, E. Garavaglia & L. Sgambi

    Analytical prediction model for concrete cover cracking due to reinforcement corrosion
    E. Bohner & H.S. Müller

    Numerical analysis of degradation processes in reinforced concrete during life-cycle
    F. Cramer, U. Kowalsky & D. Dinkler

    Optimal next inspection time for bridges based on corrosion deterioration
    D. De León, C. González-Pérez, V. Bisadi, P. Gardoni, M. Head & S. Hurlebaus

    Modelling of the saturation behaviour of hardened cement paste during freezing and thawing action
    Z. Djuric, M. Haist, H.S. Müller & E.H. Hardy

    Seismic intensity parameters as damage potential descriptors for life-cycle analysis of buildings
    A. Elenas, Ast. Liolios, L. Vasiliadis, M. Favvata & Ang. Liolios

    Bridge maintenance education system based on E-learning
    T. Koyama, K. Ishibashi, K. Nakatsu & H. Furuta

    Structural, economic and environmental performance of fibre reinforced wood profiles vs. solutions made of steel and concrete
    C. Manthey, E. Guenther, A. Heiduschke & P. Haller

    A stochastic prediction model of degrading process for tunnel management systems
    O. Maruyama, A. Sutoh, H. Tanaka &T. Satoh

    Remaining life prediction of an aged bridge based on field inspections
    A. Miyamoto

    Gamma processes for the degradation analysis of engineering structures
    A. Strauss, H. Abebe Demissie & K. Bergmeister

    Bridge condition assessment based on long-term strain and vehicle monitoring
    L.M. Sun & S.W. Sun

    A consideration on the deterioration of tunnel lining based on actual inspection data
    A. Sutoh, O. Maruyama, T. Sato & H. Nishi

    Reliability of deterioration prediction with Markov model for mooring facilities
    H. Yokota, K. Furuya, K. Hashimoto & S. Hanada


    Performance based evaluation of corrosion in reinforced and pre-stressed concrete structures
    Organizer: U. Schneck

    Corrosion-induced cracking evolution and reliability prediction of aging RC structures
    H.-P. Chen & N. Xiao

    Durability of cooling tower constructions and methods of their repair and reinforcement
    M. Kaminski & M. Maszczak

    Probabilistic assessment for structural performance of port RC structure
    E. Kato, Y. Kawabata, M. Iwanami & H. Yokota

    The impact of resistivity on potential mapping
    S. Keßler & C. Gehlen

    Non-destructive corrosion surveys: Methods and opportunities
    U. Schneck

    Approaches for non-destructive corrosion surveys of bridge decks from the soffit and under traffic: A case study
    U. Schneck

    Life-cycle design of concrete structures under consideration of advancing reinforcement corrosion
    C. Siegert & M. Empelmann

    Prediction of remaining service life of cracking concrete box girder bridges
    Y. Xiang, J. Xu, L. Liu & X. Li

    Life-cycle and reliability assessment of anchorage systems in concrete, masonry and steel construction
    Organizers: R. Mihala & J. Hofmann

    Aspects of long-term behaviour of power-actuated fastenings made to steel and concrete
    H. Beck

    Time-to-failure behavior of epoxy based bonded anchor systems
    R. Blochwitz, J. Hofmann, R.A. Cook &T.M. Davis

    Sustained load performance of adhesive anchor systems in concrete
    T.M. Davis, R.A. Cook, R. Blochwitz & J. Hofmann

    Service life design for bonded anchors – a rheological approach
    T. Kraenkel, D. Lowke & C. Gehlen

    Gluing to masonry for efficient and sustainable anchoring
    C. Kurz & J. Hofmann

    Implementation of the basic requirement “sustainability” on construction works according to the construction products regulation in the field of anchor technology
    G. Lange

    Durability of temporary anchors in rock
    A. Rieder, D. Marini, G. Estrafallaces & A. Strauss

    Durability proof of steel metal screws in accordance with European technical approvals
    M. Siemers

    Serviceability and ultimate limit states for anchorages in concrete – effects of assembly tolerances
    P. Spyridis, A. Unterweger, S. Lachinger & K. Bergmeister

    The functionality of fasteners with small embedment depth in carbonated concrete
    M. Stipetic & J. Hofmann

    Life-cycle engineering tools for risk-based decision under uncertainty
    Organizers: C.F. Cremona & A.D. Orcesi

    Vulnerability analysis of a park of small dams to natural hazards through a GIS
    K. Bouzelha, H. Hammoum, F. Saradouni, M. Fernane & S. Lounnas

    A probabilistic approach for life-cycle environmental analysis of motorway bridges
    H. Gervásio & L. Simões da Silva

    Life-cycle design of concrete bridges
    T. Kovács & L.E. Laczák

    Relative performance concepts: A new approach in life-cycle management of concrete structures
    L. Lohaus & J. Gerlach

    A stochastic aging model for life-cycle assessment
    M. Petschacher

    Stochastic models for degrading infrastructure systems
    M. Sánchez-Silva, J. Riascos-Ochoa & G.-A. Klutke

    A comparative life-cycle cost analysis of steel-concrete composite bridges
    N.B. Ta, A.D. Orcesi & C.F. Cremona

    DIOGEN: Environmental impact database for life-cycle assessment of civil engineering structures
    Y. Tardivel & C. Tessier

    Model for negotiation of refinancing gain from public-private partnership
    L. Zhu & D.K.H. Chua

    Industrial risk reduction system
    Organizer: H.Wenzel

    Reliability of decisions based on lifetime functions and monitoring data
    A. Del Grosso & F. Lanata

    Evaluation of structural behaviour of a fire damaged highway bridge in Lagos-Nigeria with BRIMOS® structural health monitoring
    P. Furtner, R. Veit-Egerer, J. Buchmann & M. Buschlinger

    Monitoring and evaluation of an arch bridge over the Traun River – Austria affected by the blasting of the adjacent highway bridge
    R. Veit-Egerer, M.Widmann & H.Wenzel

    Management concept for highway infrastructure based on life-cycle analysis providing heavy maintenance instructions and cross asset harmonisation
    R. Veit-Egerer, P. Furtner, K. Gragger &W. Neumann

    Ultrasonic monitoring of high temperature pipes in power plants using wave guides
    B.Weihnacht, T. Klesse, U. Lieske & B. Frankenstein

    Contribution to US long-term bridge performance program with regard to life-cycle investigations – reference bridge New Jersey
    H.Wenzel, M.Widmann, A.E. Aktan & F. Moon

    International investigation on the earthquake damaged Chi Lu Cable Stayed Bridge after repair and several years of operation
    H.Wenzel, R. Veit-Egerer, T.-K. Lin & Z.-K. Lee

    Seepage analysis of a gate dam with a layered deep deposit foundation
    M.X.Wu, L.Z. Yang & X.H. Hu

    Actions and interventions upon existing structures
    Organizers: R. Caspeele, S. Matthews & G. Mancini

    Decision making tool for seismic retrofit of existing structures based on marginal costs
    and actualized costs of the retrofitting operations 185
    D. Asprone, F. Jalayer, A. Prota & R. Russo

    Rehabilitation design methodology for public hospital using seismic monitoring
    throughout structural life-cycle 186
    G.M. Atanasiu &V. Murarasu

    Evaluation of Bayesian updated partial factors for material properties in existing concrete
    structures 187
    R. Caspeele & L. Taerwe

    Verification of older prestressed concrete road bridges according to the German structural
    assessment provisions 188
    D. Dunkelberg, K. Zilch, M. Hennecke & M. Heinze

    Target reliability levels for the assessment of existing structures – case study
    M. Sykora & M. Holický

    Verification of existing reinforced concrete structures using the design value method
    M. Sykora & M. Holický

    Load-carrying capacity and refurbishment of a historic RC Vierendeel bridge
    P. Van Bogaert

    Simulation technique for service life assessment of façade refurbishment
    E. Vesikari, R.M. Ferreira

    Girder shear resistance assessment – applications of SIA 269/2
    D. Zwicky

    Probabilistic durability assessment of concrete structures
    Organizers: B. Teplý & D. Novák

    Life-cycle assessment of RC structures in Czech regional conditions
    P. Hajek, C. Fiala & M. Kynclova

    Time-dependent reliability analysis of reinforced concrete beam under different failure modes
    Y. Liu, Y.J. Bao, C.X. Li & X. Zhang

    Probabilistic deterioration models of reinforced concrete structures under complex environments
    J. Peng, H.Wang, C. Li & X. Liu

    The role of modeling in the probabilistic durability assessment of concrete structures
    B. Teplý, M. Chromá, P. Rovnaník & D. Novák

    Time-dependent reliability analysis of RC bridge under incomplete information
    L.Wang, Y. Ma & Z. Zuo

    Probabilistic analysis on shear resistance degradation of reinforced concrete beams induced by corrosion
    J. Zhang,W. Ding & L. Hu

    Probabilistic lifetime assessment of concrete structures under combined environmental attack
    Organizers: R. Caspeele, N.D. Belie, C. Gehlen & S. Kessler

    Influence of sulphates on chloride diffusion and the effect of this on service life prediction of concrete in a submerged marine environment
    M. Maes, R. Caspeele, P. Van den Heede & N. De Belie

    Effect of internal freeze-thaw deterioration on chloride migration in concrete
    C. Milachowski, S. Keßler, R. Chillé & C. Gehlen

    Chloride diffusion tests as experimental basis for full probabilistic service life prediction and life-cycle assessment of concrete with fly ash in a submerged marine environment
    P. Van den Heede, M. Maes, R. Caspeele & N. De Belie

    Probabilistic lifetime assessment of concrete structures in consideration of combined deterioration mechanisms and singular risks
    M. Vogel & H.S. Müller

    Life time prediction for concrete repair measures
    A.Wachsmann & H. Budelmann

    Influence of combined mechanical and environmental loads on service life of reinforced concrete structures
    F.H.Wittmann, F. Jiang, X.Wan, P. Zhang &T. Zhao

    Life-cycle cost optimization in cross asset management (ERA-NET road projects)
    Organizers: A.J. O’Connor & S. Deix

    Bayesian identification of uncertainties in chloride ingress modeling into reinforced concrete structures
    E. Bastidas-Arteaga, F. Schoefs, S. Bonnet & A.J. O’Connor

    From road asset management to cross asset optimization procedures
    S. Deix, K. Alten & A.Weninger-Vycudil

    Development of procedures for cross-asset management for road infrastructure
    A.J. O’Connor, S. Deix & V. Pakrashi

    A holistic life-cycle approach for traffic infrastructure
    J. Sauer, S. Xalter, O. Fischer & S. Freudenstein

    Cross asset management procedures in practice
    A.Weninger-Vycudil, S. Deix, K. Gragger & J. Litzka

    Cost effective maintenance to supply end user value: Visionary or utopian
    J.Wessels, K. Alten, M.R. Turk & S.Š. Palic

    Life-cycle cost analyses
    Organizers: H.G. Jodl, P. Veit, J. Glatzl & T. Simandl

    Life-cycle cost analysis considerations for accelerated bridge construction
    U. Attanayake, A.W. Mohammed, Y. Hu, O. Abudayyeh & H.M. Aktan

    Life-cycle financial modelling of long term infrastructure projects “PPP-BOT Projects” under uncertainty and risk
    M. Attarzadeh, D.K.H. Chua, L. Zhu & M. Beer

    Life-cycle cost management for newly constructed infrastructure
    J.D. Bakker, J. Helmer & J. Schavemaker

    Monitoring of an LCC-oriented maintenance of rail routes
    G. Eibinger & U. Puz

    Challenges for RAMS/LCC analysis of railway rails
    A. Lamik & G. Girsch

    Life-cycle costs of tunnels
    J. Schwarz, S. Engelhardt & M. Keuser

    Utilization times of railway bridges
    T. Simandl

    Stochastic cost estimation for large infrastructure projects: A computational framework
    A.E. Tamparopoulos, D. Alfreider & K. Bergmeister

    The calculation of life-cycle costs for road tunnels under the influence of uncertainties
    P. Vogt & M. Thewes

    Management of existing building stocks
    Organizer: C. Bahr

    Seismic insurance market for the Italian building stock
    D. Asprone, F. Jalayer, G. Manfredi, S. Simonelli & A. Acconcia

    The challenge of existing building stocks
    C. Bahr, J. Bossmann & K. Lennerts

    MultiMap: A tool for strategic analysis of building portfolios
    S. Bjørberg, A.K. Larssen & Ch.A. Listerud

    Cost-benefits and environmental impact of seismic retrofit for low-rise reinforced concrete buildings
    C.-K. Chiu

    The Bridge-Management-System (BMS) in Germany as a basis for life-cycle considerations
    R. Holst

    LCC as a decision tool for strategic development of the public building
    portfolio: A Norwegian study 238
    T. Meistad, M.S. Valen, H. Brattas & H. Gissinger

    Decision aiding & multi criteria optimization for existing buildings holistic retrofit 239
    M. Rivallain, P.E. Leger, O. Baverel & B. Peuportier

    Structural health monitoring of civil infrastructures in a life-cycle analysis
    Organizers: C.F. Cremona &A.D. Orcesi

    High precision structural health monitoring system using wireless sensor networks
    A. Araujo, F. Tirado, J. García & J. Blesa

    In-service inspection of reinforced concrete cooling towers – EDF’s feedback
    A. Courtois, Y. Genest, F. Afonso, E. Diday & A.D. Orcesi

    Automated geomatic system for monitoring historical buildings during tunneling in Roma, Italy
    M. Crespi, F. Giannone, M. Marsella &A. Sonnessa

    A vibration-based framework for structural health monitoring of railway bridges
    W. Guo, A.D. Orcesi, C.F. Cremona, J.P. Santos, S. Yang & L. Dieleman

    Force monitoring with contact free elasto-magnetic sensors on single strands for multi strand anchorages
    A. Märzluft & W. Brand

    A SHM framework comprising real time data validation
    J.P. Santos & P. Silveira

    Analysis of rehabilitation needs and maintenance strategies
    Organizers: M. Hastak & Y. Yoon

    Management system for infrastructures at waterways
    J. Bödefeld & K. Kloé

    Life-cycle considerations in bridge deck rehabilitation strategy
    B. Czarnecki,W. Johnston & G.Wilkins

    Strategies and methods to increase the life-cycle of RC buildings in seismic prone areas
    S.E. Dritsos, E.C. Apostolidi & N.P. Karela

    Optimal allocation of resources in MR&R planning for heterogeneous bridge networks
    Z. Essahli & S. Madanat

    Life-cycle cost and life-cycle carbon dioxide analyses of the new/renewable energy systems and the energy-saving measures in the elementary school facilities in South Korea
    T. Hong, H. Kim, Ch. Koo & T. Kwak

    Overall environmental impact for structural polymers: A material selection process
    R.A. Khorasgani, T. Poli & A. Rezaallah

    Life-cycle assessment of historical structures towards sustainable architectural heritage in Kosovo
    V. Nushi & S. Nixha

    Fibrecement recycling as raw material for Portland clinker production
    J. Schoon, L. Van der Heyden, I. Van Driessche & N. De Belie

    Reducing CO2-emission by using CEM V eco-cements
    K. Voit, K. Bergmeister & I. Janotka

    Multiyear infrastructure rehabilitation strategy within the context of MR&R
    Y. Yoon & M. Hastak

    Structural retrofitting for maintenance and rehabilitation
    Organizer: A. Unterweger

    Strengthening and repair of damaged structural elements of revitalized apartment, public service and industrial buildings from the turn of the 19th and 20th century in Poland
    P. Berkowski & G. Dmochowski

    The functional-structural rehabilitation of a building belonging to the archaeological industrial heritage
    B. Faggiano & L. Fiorino

    Construction rating attempt under life-cycle design
    D. Grecea, M. Georgescu & M. Szitar

    Tension stiffening of RC members subject to biaxial tensile stresses
    W. Ibrahim, J. Hegger & A. Sherif

    Behaviour of interfaces in repaired/strengthened RC elements subjected to cyclic actions: Experiments and modelling
    V. Palieraki, E. Vintzileou & C. Zeris

    Damage due to traffic before and after rehabilitation of a reinforced concrete bridge
    M. Pircher, J.Wagner, B. Lechner & A. Kammersberger

    Rehabilitation of existing structures by optimal placement of viscous dampers
    A.Gh. Pricopie & D. Cretu

    Experimental and numerical investigation of model tests strengthened by overlays
    Y. Theiner, M. Aschaber & G. Hofstetter

    Post installed fastenings at retrofitting systems in Japan
    A. Unterweger, Y. Nakano & K. Bergmeister

    Strengthening of historical stone masonry buildings: Experimental testing and modeling of a 2-storey plain masonry building
    E. Vintzileou, H. Mouzakis, C.-E. Adami & L. Karapitta

    Fatigue of concrete – experiments, models, applications
    Organizers: S. Seitl, Z. Keršner, R. Pukl & D. Pryl

    Experimental investigation of transitional size effect and crack length effect in concrete fracture
    C.G. Hoover, Z.P. Bažant, R.Wendner, J. Vorel, M.H. Hubler, K. Kim, M. Gattu, K. Kirane, J.-L. Le & Q. Yu

    Experimental study on fatigue durability of RC road bridge decks subjected to chloride induced deterioration
    I. Iwaki

    Numerical modeling of crack growth in quasibrittle structures under compressive fatigue
    J.-L. Le & J. Eliáš

    Modelling high-cycle fatigue of concrete specimens in three point bending
    D. Pryl, R. Pukl & J. Cervenka

    Damage evolution in concrete under high compressive cyclic loadings
    A. Rogge & M. Thiele

    Fatigue crack growth in cement based composites: Experimental aspects
    S. Seitl, Z. Knésl, H. Šimonová & Z. Keršner

    Fatigue and cumulative damage of concrete grain silos
    G. Vlaicu & T. Pascu

    Study on wind-induced fatigue of transmission tower-line in hilly terrain wind field
    Z.Wang, Z. Li, Ch. Zhang & P. Deng

    Increasing durability of concrete structures
    Organizer: J.L. Vítek

    Design of concrete structures for durability
    J. Bilcik & I. Holly

    Durability design of structural cover concrete based on bleeding rate
    Y. Kato & K. Hayakawa

    Improvement of performance of concrete precast elements using FRC
    A. Kohoutkova

    Increasing concrete resistance to deicing chemicals by using metakaolin
    P. Máca, D. Jandeková, R. Sovják & P. Konvalinka

    Impact of cracks on the durability and on the service-life of fiber reinforced ultra high performance concrete – evaluation, modeling and structural measures
    M. Schmidt & A. Rafie

    Influential variabilities in reliability of reinforced concrete pipes
    J.L. Silva & M.K. El Debs

    Life-cycle considerations for reinforced concrete structures in case of fire with respect to spalling
    F. Tabeling, P. Schaumann, F. Cramer, D. Dinkler, C. Albrecht & D. Hosser

    High performance concrete for the Troja Bridge in Prague
    J.L. Vitek & R. Coufal

    Numerical modelling of long-term behaviour of concrete structures using B3 model
    Organizers: L. Vráblík & V. Kristek

    Influence of repeated variable load on long-term behavior of concrete elements
    T. Arangjelovski, G. Markovski & P. Mark

    Modeling of concrete creep based on microprestress-solidification theory
    P. Havlásek & M. Jirásek

    Updating B3 model for long-term basic creep
    V. Šmilauer, M. Lepš & M. Gregorová

    Application of B3 prediction model to analyze prestress loss in prestressed concrete members
    L. Vrablík, V. Kristek & B. Teplý

    Model B3.1 for multi-decade concrete creep and shrinkage: Calibration by combined laboratory and bridge data
    R.Wendner, Z.P. Bažant & M.H. Hubler

    Application of special non-destructive testing methods to different kind of structures
    Organizer: M. Reiterer

    Low-cost sensor for integrated durability monitoring and life-cycle assessment of reinforced concrete structures
    A. Holst & H. Budelmann

    Development of a virtual reality-based support system for bridge inspectors
    S. Sawamura & A. Miyamoto

    Modern acoustic NDT methods for the off- and online detection of damages in composite aeronautic structures
    M. Scheerer, A. Peldszus, M. Stadtschnitzer & R.Wagner

    Experimental modeling of fatigue processes to detect the real degree of deterioration
    S. Urban, A. Strauss, M. Reiterer & R.Wagner

    Damage process monitoring on the hot spot of a real steel component by means of ultrasonic guided waves
    M. Vospernig, M. Reiterer & R. Heuer

    Concrete fatigue monitoring on large scale structures using acoustic emission and an ultrasonic actuation and sensing system
    R.Wagner, M. Reiterer, A. Strauss & S. Urban

    Seismic system identification for life-time-prediction (SEISMID)
    Organizers: H.Wenzel & P. Furtner

    Assessment of the global dynamic behavior of a historic residential brick-masonry building in Vienna
    G. Achs & C. Adam

    Seismic capacity of old masonry buildings in Vienna: Laboratory testing on bricks, mortar, and small-scale brick masonry
    T. Furtmüller, C. Adam & C. Niederegger

    Seismic capacity of old masonry buildings in Vienna: Numerical modeling of load-bearing brick masonry walls
    T. Furtmüller & C. Adam

    The assessment of soil-structure-interaction by measurements
    F. Kopf, A. Bekö, D. Schäfer, M. Pietsch & L. Rossbacher

    Measurement principles for masonry buildings
    F. Kopf, D. Schäfer, M. Pietsch & L. Rossbacher

    Remote sensing and GIS contribution to earthquake disaster preparedness in the Vienna area
    B. Theilen-Willige, H.Wenzel & P. Furtner

    Evaluation of the safety index of old masonry buildings in Vienna: Non-linear analysis based on seismic capacity
    T. Zimmermann & A. Strauss

    Life-cycle assessment for sustainability evaluation of buildings
    Organizers: R. Smutny, C. Neururer & M. Treberspurg

    Life-cycle assessment of steel constructions
    M. Feldmann, D. Pyschny, B. Döring & M. Kuhnhenne

    Ecological and economic impact of various materials and constructions for buildings over the whole life-cycle
    A. Hafner & S.Winter

    Wooden products – positive material in life-cycle analysis
    A. Hafner, S.Winter & A. Takano

    MINERGIE-ECO® 2011 – definition of thresholds in an LCA-based building label
    D. Kellenberger

    Sensitivity of life-cycle analysis results to the required service life of buildings
    H. König, T. Lützkendorf & M.L. De Cristofaro

    “Mountain wood vs. lowland wood”, an ecological process assessment – a case study
    A. Kraler, V. Krismer & G.Wieland

    Life-cycle assessment as a planning tool for sustainable buildings
    L. Messari-Becker, K. Bollinger & M. Grohmann

    Environmental life-cycle analysis of housing estates in Austria
    R. Smutny

    LCM – Life-Cycle Management, integrated management philosophy for building projects
    R. Stempkowski & M.Wallner-Kleindienst

    Has sustainability become the norm in the planning and execution of building projects?
    A. Tautschnig & D. Burtscher

    Passive House – best practice examples of cost effective building solutions with high-quality living
    M. Treberspurg & M. Djalili

    LCA of multi-storey timber building and comparative estimation with alternative building materials
    Y. Yeh & P. Haller

    Life-cycle cost analysis and risk analysis for buildings
    Organizers: T. Lützkendorf, S. Geissler & H. Kreiner

    OPIK-International: An international comparison of single life-cycle processes in hospitals
    M. Banedj-Schafii & K. Lennerts

    Impact of semi-transparent building-integrated photovoltaics on building life-cycle cost
    K. Fath, J. Stengel, F. Schultmann, S. Mende, H.R.Wilson & T.E. Kuhn

    Specific life-cycle cost indicators and design recommendations for life-cycle cost optimized buildings
    H. Floegl

    Life-cycle cost analysis of building components and materials used in hospitals
    T. Halder, H. Kreiner & A. Passer

    Life-cycle cost method for the early design phase of non-residential buildings
    G. Hofer, M. Grim, B. Herzog & M. Pongratz

    The use of life-cycle analysis for planning and assessment of construction works: Topics and trends
    T. Lützkendorf

    Risk management and robustness as part of sustainability assessment
    P. Maydl & D. Schulter

    Life-cycle assessment and construction costs of a low energy residential building
    M. Paleari, M. Lavagna &A. Campioli

    Combined database for LCC, LCA and life-cycle quality
    T. Schrag, E. Stocker, Ch.Wartha, E. Hasler & H. Leindecker

    Life-cycle assessment of a passive house and a traditional house – comparative study based on practical experiences
    D. Stoian, T. Dencsak, S. Pescari & I. Botea

    Thinking future with risk management – a substantial tool of life-cycle management
    E.Waldauer & R. Stempkowski

    Life-cycle design and engineering of facades and building envelopes
    Organizers: O. Englhardt & A. Merl

    Decision support method for flat roofs with focus on life-cycle costs using a probabilistic method
    C. Harreither, T. Bednar & B. Nusser

    Green homes through LCC(A)-based planning of multi-functional building skin
    L. Messari-Becker, K. Bollinger & M. Grohmann

    Parameter study of a prefabricated retrofit façade system
    S. Ott & S.Winter

    Implementation of energy efficient measures in apartments in Macedonia
    T. Samardzioska, M. Cvetkovska, M. Lazarevska & A.T. Gavriloska

    Life-cycle of building’s facades: Service life prediction of natural stone wall claddings using the factor method
    A. Silva, J. de Brito & P.L. Gaspar

    Analysis of influence of water vapor condensation in building construction envelopes
    J. Skramlik, O. Fuciman, M. Novotny & Z. Mastna

    Structural and thermal retrofitting of buildings
    Organizers: O. Englhardt

    Sustainable retrofitting solutions for precast concrete residential buildings
    A.A. Botici, V. Ungureanu, A. Ciutina, A. Botici & D. Dubina

    A comparison of three schools renovated to the Passive House standard
    G. Kopeinig

    New envelopes for old buildings – the potential of using membrane systems for the thermal retrofitting of existing buildings
    W. Lang, J. Cremers, A. Beck & J. Manara

    Indicators for sustainability assessment of renewables
    P. Schaumann, A. Bechtel, H.-J.Wagner & N. Stranghöner

    Sustainable thermal retrofitting solutions for multi-storey residential buildings
    V. Ungureanu, A. Ciutina & D. Dubina

    Sustainability certification of new and of existing buildings
    Organizers: A. Passer & H.Wallbaum

    Rating tools for the evaluation of building sustainability
    T. Dencsak & C. Bob

    Case studies with the DGNB certificate and the OPEN HOUSE methodology – practical experiences and results
    N. Essig & S. Eberl

    Environmental evaluation of steel plates and steel sections sold on the French market
    F. Gomes, A. Feraille, G. Habert & C. Tessier

    EU-project OPEN HOUSE: Benchmarking and mainstreaming building sustainability in the EU based on transparency and openness (open source and availability) from model to implementation
    R. Hardziewski, H.Wallbaum, N. Essig & S. Eberl

    Statistical cluster analysis as a means to complement LCA of buildings
    V. John & H.Wallbaum

    Interdependency of LCCA and LCA in the assessment of buildings
    H. Kreiner & A. Passer

    Building sustainability assessment system corresponding to needs of users
    A. Lupíšek

    Environmental assessment of building refurbishments in SBToolCZ – criteria setup
    S. Mancik & J. Ruzicka

    Utilizing GIS as a geospatial tool to inventory LEED certified buildings and Construction and Demolition (C&D) waste flows in the United States
    K.A. Marcellus, S. Spatari & P.M. Gallagher

    Tools and processes for life-cycle engineering: Experience from the European project OPEN HOUSE
    V. Peyramale

    Longlife – energy efficiency and sustainability
    K. Rückert, M.-I. Kiefel, Ch. Engel & S. Michel

    Ecological life-cycle assessment of structures made of UHPC – systematic and practical relevance
    M. Schmidt

    Life-cycle assessment of buildings for sustainable development
    Z. Stránská & J. Sedlák

    Towards sustainable dams and embankments
    Organizers: M.Wieland & W.Wu

    Reliability analysis for rainfall stability of municipal solid waste landfills on slope
    F.K. Huang & G.S.Wang

    Life-cycle assessment of Tuttle Creek Dam seismic retrofit
    J.F. Hubler, P.M. Gallagher & S. Spatari

    Life-cycle performance of a concrete shear-wall structure
    M.J. Shah

    Effect of geogrid in rockfill dams during strong earthquakes
    E. Soranzo,W.Wu & M.Wieland

    Safety aspects of sustainable storage dams


    Organizers: A. Strauss, D.M. Frangopol & K. Bergmeister
    Estimation of steel weight loss due to corrosion in RC members based on

    digital image processing of X-ray photogram 389
    M. Akiyama & D.M. Frangopol

    Numerical simulations of occupants evacuation within the context of
    life-cycle engineering in building construction 390
    C. Albrecht, D. Hosser,W. Abu Abed, N. Rinke &V. Berkhahn

    Assessment of structural damage due to ground settlements by using the DInSAR
    technique 391
    S. Arangio, M. Di Mauro, M. Marsella, A. Sonnessa & M. Manunta

    Performance-based retrofit of a prestressed concrete road bridge in seismic area
    A.M. Avossa, R. Di Camillo & P. Malangone

    Efficient design and construction of the APM major bridge project in Saudi Arabia
    E. Ayoub, C. Malek & G. Helmy

    Probabilistic description of foundation capacity for design of electrical transmission lines
    C.B.P. Azevedo & S.M.C. Diniz

    The SBAS-DInSAR technique: A tool for deformation monitoring in the urban damage assessment
    M. Bonano, F. Calò, M. Manunta & M. Marsella

    Rehabilitation of concrete bridges using Ultra-High Performance Fibre Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC)
    E. Brühwiler

    Fatigue safety examination of a 150-year old riveted railway bridge
    E. Brühwiler

    Rehabilitation of two bridges in construction in the motorway M-410 in Madrid, Spain
    C.J. Cabañes

    Testing of pre-stressed masonry corner for tri-axial stress-strain analysis
    R. Cajka, P. Mateckova, M. Stara & M. Janulikova

    Health monitoring of civil engineering structures – what we can learn from experience
    R. Cantieni

    The research on the time-dependence of recurrence times of great earthquakes based on the historical records in North area of China
    Z.H. Chen & X.L. Liu

    Development and verification of a typhoon wind hazard model for Taipei
    R.-H. Cherng,W.-C. Hsu, C.-C. Li & C.-S. Chen

    Seismic reliability and LCCs of a RC buildings considering earthquake events within a specified service period
    C.-K. Chiu &W.-Y. Jean

    Threshold-based network-level transportation infrastructure management
    J.C. Chu &Y.J. Chen

    The economic impact of photocatalytic concrete in an urban industrial setting
    C.J. Churchill & D.K. Panesar

    Life-cycle optimization based on progressive collapse monitoring of irregular RC structures located in seismic active areas in Europe
    S. Crijanovschi & G.M. Atanasiu

    The use of advanced remote sensing techniques for monitoring of slopes affected by slow movements
    M.E. D’Effremo & E. Fontanella

    Performing of non-destructive measurement methods on existing arch bridge structures
    F. Dengg, K. Mendlig, A. Krawtschuk & A. Strauss

    Post-earthquake geomatic survey of a monumental building in L’Aquila, Italy
    D. Dominici, M. Elaiopoulos, D. Galeota & A. Gregori

    Transverse load distribution in masonry arch bridges
    H. Dunne, J. Murphy & K. Ruane

    Time dependent reliability for existing structure based on the moment method
    W.-L. Fan, S. Zhang, Z.-L. Li & P. Deng

    Preservation of structural and functional integrity in the interaction of new and existing structures: The case of London Underground’s Green Park Station
    A. Feiersinger, T. Mitsch & P. Spyridis

    Progressive collapse of seismic resistant multistory frame buildings
    M. Ferraioli & A.M. Avossa

    Sustainability of tunnelling based on life-cycles analysis
    M. Flora & G. Fröch

    Safety evaluation of masonry arch bridges by nonlinear finite element analyses
    S.A. Franck, V. Slowik & S. Marx

    Model-free identification of uncertain time-dependent material behaviour for long term structural analysis
    S. Freitag,W. Graf & M. Kaliske

    A multi-dimensional approach on maintenance of distributed infrastructure: ASFINAG’s maintenance strategy
    A. Fromm & R. Liskounig

    Availability orientated operation of automated people mover
    A. Fruehwirth & J.Winter

    Time-dependent compressive strength of concrete in existing buildings
    X.L. Gao, Y.Y. Yan & J. Li

    Application of satellite radar interferometry for structural damage assessment and monitoring
    C. Giannico, A. Ferretti, L. Jurina & M. Ricci

    Energy harvesting for the life-cycle of structures and infrastructures: State of art, recent trends and future developments
    K. Gkoumas, F. Petrini & F. Bontempi

    Integral railway bridges for high speed trains – from conceptual design to construction by the example of the Gaensebachtal Bridge
    A. Goldack & M. Schlaich

    Maintenance costs calculation over the life-cycle: A method for the usage of elementary influence factors on the technical durability of technical components and constructed assets
    G. Hardkop

    Load induced damage in masonry bridges, some observations on stiffness and force flow
    B. Harvey

    Flexible floor slab systems for long service life
    J. Hegger, M. Claßen, T. Dreßen & J. Gallwoszus

    A standardized life-cycle costing framework for flexible and rigid pavements in Austria
    M. Hoffmann & R. Blab

    Risk-based monitoring, inspection and maintenance framework for coastal structures
    N. Horstmann, S. Schimmels, K. Hinze & H. Oumeraci

    On the sustainability of deconstruction and recycling: A discussion of possibilities of end-of-lifetime measures
    P. Kamrath

    Long-term maintenance of deteriorating infrastructure: Inspection strategies for incipient failures
    G.-A. Klutke, M. Sánchez-Silva & J. Riascos-Ochoa

    Determination of mechanical and temperature induced deflection based on monitoring data for assessing the load factor
    A. Krawtschuk, T. Zimmermann & K. Haider

    The development of the combined LCC analysis system for bundling public facility maintenance
    C.K. Lee & T.K. Park

    Early warning system of roofs overloaded by snow based on measurements and inverse analysis
    D. Lehký

    Total life-cycle assessment of steel constructions
    G. Lener, D. Reiterer & A. Hauser

    Study of the identification of aggregates of construction and demolition waste by using object recognition methods
    E. Linß, H.-M. Ludwig & K. Anding

    LCC in Norway: State of the art 2012
    Ch.A. Listerud, S. Bjørberg &A.K. Larssen

    Life-cycle cost management mode based on information management platform
    L. Liu & X.Wei

    Probabilistic aspects of OffshoreWind Turbines: Influences of in situ assembly of grouted joints
    L. Lohaus & M.Werner

    An optimum design approach for the wind and seismic design of wind turbine supports in Mexico
    A. López López, L.E. Pérez Rocha & D. Maldonado Jiménez

    A comparative analysis of environmental impacts of ordinary concrete and structural lightweight concrete
    I. Lukic, M. Malesev, V. Radonjanin & V. Milovanovic

    Artificial neural networks in calibration of nonlinear models
    T. Mareš, E. Janouchová &A. Kuˇcerová

    Probabilistic assessment of working life for bridges
    J. Markova

    Probabilistic working life assessment of power-producing components
    J. Markova, M. Holický & K. Jung

    The influence of bridge maintenance on their durability and bearing capacity
    G. Markovski, T. Arangjelovski, O. Kolevski & D. Nakov

    An advanced probabilistic updating algorithm for life-cycle analysis of civil structures
    J.C. Matos, I.B. Valente, P.J.S. Cruz & L.C. Neves

    Life-cycle cost analysis for real estate
    G. Mendel & U. Käding

    Simulation of random behavior of engineering structures: From parameters identification to reliability assessment
    D. Novák & R. Pukl

    Fatigue behavior of stay cables
    J. Novoszel,W. Träger & J. Kollegger

    Reliability index for wind turbines subjected to wind and seismic actions
    L.E. Pérez Rocha, A. López López, D. Maldonado Jiménez, L.E. Manjarrez Garduño & D. de León Escobedo

    An energy harvesting application in a long span suspension bridge
    F. Petrini, O. De Gaudenzi & K. Gkoumas

    Coupled damage in assessing the lifetime of bridge and viaducts
    A. Pipinato, C. Pellegrino & C. Modena

    The influence of design life in life-cycle civil engineering
    S.G. Reid

    Extension of bridge lifetime by use of structural health monitoring
    M. Reiterer & A. Kammersberger

    Estimation of asphalt pavement performance by using risk analysis method
    V. Rosauer

    Optimizing a structure’s life with genetic algorithms and emergence theory
    M.P. Sarkisian

    The tunnel inspection database of the cold region tunnel for maintenance
    T. Sato, H. Nishi & A. Sutoh

    “Whitetopping” of asphalt and concrete pavements with thin layers of Ultra-High-Performance Concrete: Construction and economic efficiency
    C. Schmidt, M. Schmidt & P. Racky

    Study of the quantity of gypsum in Construction & DemolitionWaste (CDW)
    T. Schulz, E. Linß, A. Müller & K.Weimann

    Probability based optimized design of concrete structures
    P. Štˇepánek, I. Laníková, P. Šim°unek & F. Girgle

    Monitoring of ground-structure-interaction of an arch bridge
    J. Stoerzel, M. Spitzer, N. Randl & C. Stadler

    Uncertainty in multivariate modelling: Main concepts and an application on fracture mechanics
    A.E. Tamparopoulos, P. Spyridis & K. Bergmeister

    RC precast bridges with joint-less deck: An Italian experience
    G. Tecchio, K. Islami & C. Modena

    Life-cycle performance assessment of PSC bridges exposed to coastal zones under uncertainty: I. Theory
    H. Tian, D.M. Frangopol & A. Chen

    Life-cycle performance assessment of PSC bridges exposed to coastal zones under uncertainty: II. Application
    H. Tian, D.M. Frangopol & A. Chen

    Validation of diffusion models for life-cycle assessment of concrete structures
    A. Titi & F. Biondini

    Deterministic versus probabilistic reliability analysis of existing bridge structures
    C. Unger & M. Empelmann

    Production of pervious concrete by using construction and demolition wastes
    G. Vardaka, S. Tsimas & C. Leptokaridis

    Extension of sample size in Latin Hypercube Sampling – methodology and software
    M. Voˇrechovský

    Prevent corruption – measures to increase integrity in organizations
    A.Walcher, R. Stempkowski & M. Apfalter

    Harvesting factor in hydropower generation
    J.Wall &A. Passer

    Dynamic-based performance updating of high-speed concrete railway bridge
    S. Yang, L. Dieleman & A.D. Orcesi

    The environmental impacts of concrete containing Nano-SiO2 and typical concrete on global warming and fossil fuel depletion: A comparison
    M. Yekkalar, M.R. Sabour & M. Nikravan

    Concrete sludge water recycling: An essential practice for the sustainability of a ready-mix concrete plant
    M. Zervaki, M. Mappouridou, S. Tsimas & C. Leptokaridis

    Combining resilience and sustainability in infrastructure projects
    T. Zinke, P. Bocchini, D.M. Frangopol & T. Ummenhofer

    Epoxy-coated reinforcement – optimization of life-cycle costs?
    M. Zintel & C. Gehlen

    Poor life-cycle performance versus engineering design process
    S. Zmigrodzki

    Author index


    Alfred Strauss, Dan Frangopol, Konrad Bergmeister