2nd Edition

Linear Electric Machines, Drives, and MAGLEVs Handbook

By Ion Boldea Copyright 2023
    736 Pages 560 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Linear motion is richly present in various industries, from direct electric propulsion in urban and interurban people movers on wheels or on magnetic “cushions” (MAGLEVs) to indoor transport of goods (conveyors, etc.), through plunger solenoids (to open hotel doors and as electromagnetic power switches), to compressor drives by linear oscillatory permanent magnet (PM) motors, smart phones integrated microphone and loudspeakers, and controlled vehicles’ suspension, etc. Besides the traditional rotary motor drives with mechanical transmissions, which mean friction limitations (weather dependent) in traction (heavy vehicles), more losses, positioning errors (backlash) in the process, and higher maintenance costs to handle them, linear motion in industry by direct electromagnetic forces is free of friction limitations for traction, free of mechanical transmission, and thus more efficient, with less maintenance cost and fewer positioning errors (backlash). This explains why they are used in so many applications already since the dramatic advancement of power electronics and digital control in the last four decades.

    Modeling, performance, design, control, and testing of linear electric machines (LEMs) show notable differences with respect to rotary electric motor drives, which warrant a dedicated treatment of these aspects.

    The Second Edition (First Edition: 2013) concentrates on the above technical aspects of various types of LEMs in close relationship with specific applications via numerical examples of modeling, design, control, and testing, with ample representative results from literature, industry and some of the author’s contributions, such as:

    • Technical field and circuit modeling of linear induction motors in flat configurations for low and high speeds (with and without dynamic end effects) and in tubular configurations short travel design, control and testing

    • Linear synchronous motor (LSM) drives in dc-excited, homopolar, reluctance and superconducting excitation configurations for urban and interurban high-speed vehicles propulsion and integrated propulsion and levitation (in MAGLEVs) modeling, design and control with full-scale numerical examples, with emphasis on lower KWh/passenger/Km at high speeds

    • Flat and tubular linear permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors (L-PMSMs), mainly destined to industrial indoor transport for automation at high efficiency in clean rooms

    • Linear “flux-modulation” motors— new breed, suitable for very low-speed applications due to higher thrust density

    • Plunger solenoids in various applications including new valve PM actuators with millisecond response time

    • Linear resonant PM oscillatory motors design, control and testing mainly destined to compressors for higher efficiency in compact drives

    • Attraction and repulsive force suspension (levitation) systems for MAGLEVs

    • Active and passive guideway MAGLEVs in urban and superhigh-speed interurban transport at lower Kwh per passenger/km (in lighter vehicles without wheels)

    The numerous numerical design and control examples (with practical specifications) throughout the 23 chapters of the book allow the reader deep and fast access to a practical but thorough unitary (good for comparisons) methodology in designing and controlling LEMs for various applications.

    Linear Electric Machines, Drives, and MAGLEVs Handbook, second edition

    Preface to first and second editions

    Chapter 1 Fields, Forces, and Materials for LEMs

    Chapter 2 Classifications and Applications of LEMs

    Chapter 3 Linear Induction Motors: Topologies, Fields, Forces, and Powers Including Edge, End, and Skin Effects

    Chapter 4 Linear Induction Motors: Theories, Transients, and Control 

    Chapter 5 Design of Flat and Tubular Low-Speed LIMs

    Chapter 6 Transportation (Medium- and High-Speed) SLIM Design

    Chapter 7 DC-Excited Linear Synchronous Motors (DCE-LSM) Steady State, Design, Transients, and Control

    Chapter 8 Superconducting Magnet Linear Synchronous Motors

    Chapter 9 Homopolar Linear Synchronous Motors (H-LSM): Modeling, Design, and Control

    Chapter 10 Linear Reluctance Synchronous Motors: Modeling, Performance Design, and Control

    Chapter 11 Linear Switched Reluctance Motors (L-SRM): Modeling, Design, and Control

    Chapter 12 Flat Linear Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors

    Chapter 13 Tubular Linear Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors

    Chapter 14 Multi-Pole Coil Three-or Two-Phase Linear PM Reluctance Motors

    Chapter 15 Flux – Modulation Linear PM Motors and Magnetic Screws

    Chapter 16 Plunger Solenoids and Their Control

    Chapter 17 Linear Single-Phase PM Brushless Motors

    Chapter 18 Resonant Linear Oscillatory Single-Phase PM Motors/Generators

    Chapter 19 Multiaxis Linear PM Motor Drives

    Chapter 20 Attraction Force (Electromagnetic) Levitation Systems

    Chapter 21 Repulsive Force Levitation Systems

    Chapter 22 Active Guideway MAGLEVs

    Chapter 23 Passive Guideway MAGLEVs


    Prof. Ion Boldea studied and published extensively on "rotary and liners electric machines, drives and MAGLEVs design ,control and testing for energy saving and increased productivity in various industries: from renewable energy, through e-transport, robotics, industrial drives, home appliances and info-gadjets since 1976( ISI H-index 41(4173 citations),Scopus H-index 49(8202 citations),Google Academic H-index 61(6246 citations); he wrote more than 20 Monographs and textbooks in USA and U.K on the wide spectrum subjects above ( 6000 citations in World.cat), held IEEE DLs since 2008, intensive Courses in USA, EU,S. Korea, Brasil, China , tutorials at IEEE Conferences, Technical Consulting annual contracts, hosted IEEE Trans. special issues and spent more than 5 years in many visits since 1973 as visiting scholar in USA.He supervised successfully 24 Ph. D. students.

    Main expertise : in design and advanced encoder and encoderless control of ac electric motor/generators for applications : in home appliances,intelligent buildings,robotics, industrial processes, variable speed generators -standard and new- in power systems penetrated by renewable energy and in electric transport(cars, trucks, buses trolley buses, underground METRO, regional and high speed trains, MAGLEVs ); from critical analysis of existing solutions with improvement proposals to potentially- patentable solutions conception, design and control ,with lab prototyping and testing having as support :250+m*m labs and 11 people group(a Research Center for electric energy conversion, processing and storage with advanced digital control for various industries )at University Politehnica Timisoara ,Romania (www.upt.ro")

    He received "IEEE 2015 Nikola Tesla Award" and "2021 EPE-ECCE Outstanding Achievement Award".

    He also cochaired IEEE tech sponsored biannual International Conference OPTIM(now OPTIM-ACEMP) since 1994 and is the founding (since the year 2000)and current Editor in Chief of www.jee.ro, one of the first Internet-only technical Journals. His interests span from Philosophy, Ethics to Gardening mountain hiking and tennis.

    Linear electromagnetic machines (LEMs) exploit electromagnetic phenomena to convert electrical energy to linear motion mechanical energy reversibly. They were invented well before the 1960s, when they became interesting for industrial applications thanks to the widely spreading use of power electronic circuits for controlling linear position, speed, and force. The LEM improvements, in terms of both steady and dynamic performance, during the last decades motivate the new edition of this handbook, which includes 23 chapters having the attributes of tutorials and monographs. This second edition upgrades the former one by including a new chapter, which is dedicated to flux modulation linear permanent magnet (PM) motors and magnetic screws, and some new paragraphs related to subjects that have become hot in the field in the last ten years. It covers solution classifications to practical topologies, to modeling, design, and control, and provides numerous case studies, examples, and sample results based on an up-to-date survey of the field.

    Giovanni Spagnuolo, University of Salerno, Italy