Time-variable exposure profiles of pesticides are more often the rule than exception in the surface waters of agricultural landscapes. There is, therefore, a need to adequately address the uncertainties arising from time-variable exposure profiles in the aquatic risk assessment procedure for pesticides.
Linking Aquatic Exposure and Effects: Risk Assessment of Pesticides provides guidance and recommendations for linking aquatic exposure and ecotoxicological effects in the environmental assessment of agricultural pesticides. Leading international scientists share their expertise in aquatic exposure assessment, aquatic ecotoxicology, and the risk assessment and management of plant protection products. The book incorporates the tools and approaches currently available for assessing the environmental risks of time-variable exposure profiles of pesticides. It also discusses the science behind these techniques.
This volume covers the extrapolation techniques, including models that address the environmental fate, toxicokinetics, toxicodynamics, and ecological effects, for performing accurate aquatic environmental risk assessments of pesticides. It explains how to link aquatic exposure and effects in the risk assessment procedure for plant protection products.
Table of Contents
Guidance on Linking Aquatic Exposure and Effects in the Registration Procedure of Plant Protection Products
Executive Summary and Recommendations: European Union Workshop on Linking Aquatic Exposure and Effects in the Registration Procedure of Plant Protection Products (ELINK)
Introduction to the Guidance on Linking Aquatic Exposure and Effects in the Risk Assessment for Plant Protection Products
Tier 1 Aquatic Risk Assessment for Plant Protection Products in Europe
Generalized Exposure Regimes and Tiered Exposure
Assessment for Plant Protection Products
Species Sensitivity Distribution Approach in the Risk Assessment of Plant Protection Products
Use of Refined Exposure Single-Species and Population Studies in the Risk Assessment of Plant Protection Products
Toxicokinetic and Toxicodynamic Modeling in the Risk Assessment of Plant Protection Products
Model Ecosystem Approach in the Risk Assessment of Plant Protection Products
Ecological Models in the Risk Assessment of Plant Protection Products
Ecological Field Data in the Risk Assessment of Plant Protection Products
Reports from ELINK Work Groups
A Novice’s Guide to FOCUS Surface Water
Interaction between Fate and Effect Experts
Extrapolation Methods in Aquatic Effect Assessment of Time-Variable Exposures to Pesticides
Ecological Characterization of Water Bodies
Glossary and Appendices
Appendix 1: Workshop Participants
Appendix 2: Workshop Sponsors
Appendix 3: Case Studies
Appendix 4: Foldout Page of the ELINK Decision Scheme: Explanatory Notes for Figure 2.1
Theo C.M. Brock is a senior research scientist in aquatic ecology and ecotoxicology at Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre.
Anne Alix is the director of the unit in charge of environment and ecotoxicology evaluations at the Plant and Environment Directorate of the French Agency on the Safety of Food.
Colin D. Brown is a professor of ecochemistry at the University of York.
Ettore Capri is an associate professor of environmental chemistry at the Università Cattoloca del Sacro Cuore in Piacenza.
Bernhard F.F. Gottesbüren is team leader of BASF’s environmental fate modeling team.
Fred Heimbach is a consultant scientist in pesticide risk assessment at RIFCon GmbH.
Chris M. Lythgo works in the pesticide risk assessment peer review unit at the European Food Safety Authority in Parma.
Ralf Schulz is a professor of environmental sciences and the head of the Department for Environmental Sciences at the University of Koblenz-Landau.
Martin Streloke is head of the environmental unit at the German Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety.