1st Edition

Load Testing of Bridges: Two Volume Set

Edited By Eva Lantsoght
    774 Pages
    by CRC Press

    774 Pages
    by CRC Press

    Load Testing of Bridges, featuring contributions from almost fifty authors from around the world across two interrelated volumes, deals with the practical aspects, the scientific developments, and the international views on the topic of load testing of bridges.

    Volume 12, Load Testing of Bridges: Current practice and Diagnostic Load Testing, starts with a background to bridge load testing, including the historical perspectives and evolutions, and the current codes and guidelines that are governing in countries around the world. The second part of the book deals with preparation, execution, and post-processing of load tests on bridges. The third part focuses on diagnostic load testing of bridges.

    Volume 13, Load Testing of Bridges: Proof Load Testing and the Future of Load Testing, focuses first on proof load testing of bridges. It discusses the specific aspects of proof load testing during the preparation, execution, and post-processing of such a test (Part 1). The second part covers the testing of buildings. The third part discusses novel ideas regarding measurement techniques used for load testing. Methods using non-contact sensors, such as photography- and video-based measurement techniques are discussed. The fourth part discusses load testing in the framework of reliability-based decision-making and in the framework of a bridge management program. The final part of the book summarizes the knowledge presented across the two volumes, as well as the remaining open questions for research, and provides practical recommendations for engineers carrying out load tests.

    This work will be of interest to researchers and academics in the field of civil/structural engineering, practicing engineers and road authorities worldwide.


    Part I Background to Bridge Load Testing

    Chapter 1 Introduction
    Eva O. L. Lantsoght
    1.1 Background
    1.2 Scope of application
    1.3 Aim of this book
    1.4 Outline of this book

    Chapter 2 History of Load Testing of Bridges
    Mohamed K. ElBatanouny, Gregor Schacht and Guido Bolle
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Bridge load testing in Europe
    2.3 Bridge load testing in North America
    2.4 The potential of load testing for the evaluation of existing structures
    2.5 Summary and conclusions

    Chapter 3 Current Codes and Guidelines
    Eva O. L. Lantsoght
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 German guidelines
    3.3 British guidelines
    3.4 Irish guidelines
    3.5 Guidelines in the United States
    3.6 French guidelines
    3.7 Czech Republic and Slovakia
    3.8 Spanish guidelines
    3.9 Other countries
    3.10 Current developments
    3.11 Discussion
    3.12 Summary

    Part II Preparation, Execution, and Post-Processing of Load Tests on Bridges

    Chapter 4 General Considerations
    Eva O. L. Lantsoght and Jacob W. Schmidt
    4.1 Initial considerations
    4.2 Types of load tests, and which type of load test to select
    4.3 When to load test a bridge, and when not to load test
    4.4 Structure type considerations
    4.5 Safety requirements during load testing
    4.6 Summary and conclusions

    Chapter 5 Preparation of Load Tests
    Eva O. L. Lantsoght and Jacob W. Schmidt
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 Determination of test objectives
    5.3 Bridge inspection
    5.4 Preliminary calculations and development of finite element model
    5.5 Planning and preparation of load test
    5.6 Summary and conclusions

    Chapter 6 General Considerations for the Execution of Load Tests
    Eva O. L. Lantsoght and Jacob W. Schmidt
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Loading equipment
    6.3 Measurement equipment
    6.4 Practical aspects of execution
    6.5 Summary and conclusions

    Chapter 7 Post-Processing and Bridge Assessment
    Eva O. L. Lantsoght and Jacob W. Schmidt
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Post-processing of measurement data
    7.3 Updating finite element model with measurement data
    7.4 Bridge assessment
    7.5 Formulation of recommendations for maintenance or operation
    7.6 Recommendations for reporting of load tests
    7.7 Summary and conclusions
    References 151

    Part III Diagnostic Load Testing of Bridges

    Chapter 8 Methodology for Diagnostic Load Testing
    Eva O. L. Lantsoght, Jonathan Bonifaz, Telmo A. Sanchez and Devin K. Harris
    8.1 Introduction
    8.2 Preparation of diagnostic load tests
    8.3 Procedures for the execution of diagnostic load testing
    8.4 Processing diagnostic load testing results
    8.5 Evaluation of diagnostic load testing results
    8.6 Summary and conclusions
    Appendix: Determination of Experimental Rating Factor According to Barker

    Chapter 9 Example Field Test to Load Rate a Prestressed Concrete Bridge
    Eli S. Hernandez and John J. Myers
    9.1 Introduction
    9.2 Sample bridge description
    9.3 Bridge instrumentation plan
    9.4 Diagnostic load test program
    9.5 Test results
    9.6 Girder distribution factors
    9.7 Load rating of Bridge A7957 by field load testing
    9.8 Recommendations
    9.9 Summary

    Chapter 10 Example Load Test: Diagnostic Testing of a Concrete Bridge with a Large Skew Angle
    Mauricio Diaz Arancibia and Pinar Okumus
    10.1 Summary
    10.2 Characteristics of the bridge tested
    10.3 Goals of load testing
    10.4 Preliminary analytical model
    10.5 Coordination of the load test
    10.6 Instrumentation plan
    10.7 Data acquisition
    10.8 Loading
    10.9 Planning and scheduling
    10.10 Redundancy and repeatability
    10.11 Results
    10.12 Conclusions and recommendations

    Chapter 11 Diagnostic Load Testing of Bridges – Background and Examples of Application
    Piotr Olaszek and Joan R. Casas
    11.1 Background
    11.2 Examples of diagnostic load testing
    11.3 Conclusions and recommendations for practice

    Chapter 12 Field Testing of Pedestrian Bridges
    Darius Bačinskas, Ronaldas Jakubovskis and Arturas Kilikevičius
    12.1 Introduction
    12.2 Preparation for testing
    12.3 Organization of the tests
    12.4 Analysis of test results
    12.5 Theoretical modeling of tested bridge
    12.6 Concluding remarks



    Part I Proof Load Testing of Bridges

    Chapter 1 Methodology for Proof Load Testing
    Eva O. L. Lantsoght
    1.1 Introduction
    1.2 Determination of target proof load
    1.3 Procedures for proof load testing
    1.4 Processing of proof load testing results
    1.5 Bridge assessment based on proof load tests
    1.6 Summary and conclusions

    Chapter 2 Load Rating of Prestressed Concrete Bridges without Design Plans by Nondestructive Field Testing
    David V. Jauregui, Brad D. Weldon, and Carlos V. Aguilar
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Inspection and evaluation procedures
    2.3 Case studies
    2.4 Conclusions

    Chapter 3 Example of Proof Load Testing from Europe
    Eva O. L. Lantsoght, Dick A. Hordijk, Rutger T. Koekkoek, and Cor van der Veen
    3.1 Introduction to viaduct Zijlweg
    3.2 Preparation of proof load test
    3.3 Execution of proof load test
    3.4 Post-processing and rating
    3.5 Summary and conclusions

    Part II Testing of Buildings

    Chapter 4 Load Testing of Concrete Building Constructions
    Gregor Schacht, Guido Bolle, and Steffen Marx
    4.1 Historical development of load testing in Europe
    4.2 Load testing of existing concrete building constructions
    4.3 New developments
    4.4 Practical recommendations
    4.5 Summary and conclusions

    Part III Advances in Measurement Techniques for Load Testing

    Chapter 5 Digital Image and Video-Based Measurements
    Mohamad Alipour, Ali Shariati, Thomas Schumacher, Devin K. Harris, and C. J. Riley
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 Digital image correlation (DIC) for deformation measurements
    5.3 Eulerian virtual visual sensors (VVS) for natural frequency measurements
    5.4 Recommendations for practice
    5.5 Summary and conclusions
    5.6 Outlook and future trends

    Chapter 6 Acoustic Emission Measurements for Load Testing
    Mohamed ElBatanouny, Rafal Anay, Marwa A. Abdelrahman, and Paul Ziehl
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Acoustic emission–based damage identification
    6.3 Source location during load tests
    6.4 Discussion and recommendations for field applications

    Chapter 7 Fiber Optics for Load Testing
    Joan R. Casas, António Barrias, Gerardo Rodriguez Gutiérrez, and Sergi Villalba
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Distributed optical fibers in load testing
    7.3 Conclusions

    Chapter 8 Deflection Measurement on Bridges by Radar Techniques
    Carmelo Gentile
    8.1 Introduction
    8.2 Radar technology and the microwave interferometer
    8.3 Accuracy and validation of the radar technique
    8.4 Static and dynamic tests of a steel-composite bridge
    8.5 A challenging application: structural health monitoring of stay cables
    8.6 Summary

    Part IV Load Testing in the Framework of Reliability-Based Decision-Making and Bridge Management Decisions

    Chapter 9 Reliability-Based Analysis and Life-Cycle Management of Load Tests
    Dan M. Frangopol, David Y. Yang, Eva O. L. Lantsoght, and Raphael D. J. M. Steenbergen
    9.1 Introduction
    9.2 Influence of load testing on reliability index
    9.3 Required target load for updating reliability index
    9.4 Systems reliability considerations
    9.5 Life-cycle cost considerations
    9.6 Summary and conclusions

    Chapter 10 Determination of Remaining Service Life of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Structures in Corrosive Environments after Load Testing
    Dimitri V. Val and Mark G. Stewart
    10.1 Introduction
    10.2 Deterioration of RC structures in corrosive environments
    10.3 Reliability-based approach to structural assessment
    10.4 Corrosion initiation modeling
    10.5 Corrosion propagation modeling
    10.6 Effect of spatial variability on corrosion initiation and propagation
    10.7 Influence of climate change
    10.8 Illustrative examples
    10.9 Summary
    References 328

    Chapter 11 Load Testing as Part of Bridge Management in Sweden
    Lennart Elfgren, Bjorn Täljsten, and Thomas Blanksvärd
    11.1 Introduction
    11.2 History
    11.3 Present practice
    11.4 Future
    11.5 Conclusions

    Chapter 12 Load Testing as Part of Bridge Management in the Netherlands
    Ane de Boer
    12.1 Introduction
    12.2 Overview of load tests on existing structures
    12.3 Inspections and re-examination
    12.4 Conclusions and outlook

    Part V Conclusions and Outlook

    Chaper 13 Conclusions and Outlook
    Eva O. L. Lantsoght
    13.1 Current body of knowledge on load testing
    13.2 Current research and open research questions
    13.3 Conclusions and practical recommendations


    Dr. Lantsoght graduated with a Master’s Degree in Civil Engineering from the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Brussels, Belgium) in 2008. She later earned a Master's degree in Structural Engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology (Atlanta, Georgia, USA) in 2009 and the title of Doctor in Structural Engineering from Technische Universiteit Delft (Delft, the Netherlands) in 2013. The work experience of Dr. Lantsoght includes design work in structural and bridge engineering in Belgium (Establis, and Ney & Partners) and working as an independent consultant in structural engineering in Ecuador (Adstren). Dr. Lantsoght is an active member of the technical committees of the Transportation Research Board in Concrete Bridges (AFF-30) and Testing and Evaluation of Transportation Structures (AFF-40), a member of the technical committees of the American Concrete Institute and Deutscher Ausschuß für Stahlbeton Shear Databases (ACI-DAfStb-445-D), and the joint ACI-ASCE (American Society of Civil Engineers) committee on Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs (ACI-ASCE 421), and an associate member of the committees on Evaluation of Concrete Bridges and Concrete Bridge Elements (ACI 342), on Shear and Torsion (ACI-ASCE 445), and on Strength Evaluation of Existing Concrete Structures (ACI 437). In the academic field, Dr. Lantsoght is a full professor at the Universidad San Francisco de Quito (Quito, Ecuador) and a researcher at Technische Universiteit Delft (Delft, Netherlands). Her field of research is the design and analysis of concrete structures and analysis of existing bridges.