Local Positioning Systems: LBS Applications and Services, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Local Positioning Systems

LBS Applications and Services, 1st Edition

By Krzysztof W. Kolodziej, Johan Hjelm

CRC Press

488 pages | 130 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9780849333491
pub: 2006-05-10
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Local Positioning Systems: LBS Applications and Services explores the possible approaches and technologies to location problems including people and asset tracking, mobile resource management, public safety, and handset location-based services. The book examines several indoor positioning systems, providing detailed case studies of existing applications and their requirements, and shows how to set them up. Other chapters are dedicated to position computation algorithms using different signal metrics and determination methods, 2D/3D indoor map data and location models, indoor navigation, system components and how they work, privacy, deployment issues, and standards. In detail, the book explains the steps for deploying a location-enabled network, including doing a site-survey, creating a positioning model and floor maps, and access point placement and configuration. Also presented is a classification for network-based and ad-hoc positioning systems, and a framework for developing indoor LBS services.

This comprehensive guide will be invaluable to students and lecturers in the area of wireless computing. It will also be an enabling resource to developers and researchers seeking to expand their knowledge in this field.


Local Positioning Systems is a groundbreaking book to support researchers and practitioners in location and tracking based services. The book is particularly impressive in the coverage of emerging indoor location based services that many observers claim to be a fast growing market (after all, we spend much of our time indoors). Congratulations to the authors on a job well done.”

--Antonio S. Camara, CEO, YDreams

”This book provides an excellent overview of some of the different technologies that can be used to provide positioning solutions in support of location based services….This book will serve as good reference material for anyone interested in learning about opportunities and pitfalls in the development and deployment of in-door positioning systems for LBS”

--Alison Brown, PhD, President/CEO NAVSYS Corporation

“This descriptive, all-encompassing book is a must for anyone wanting to understand location-based services from infrastructure components to service deployment. The technologies and problems associated with LBS are described at length. The approach is non-technical and the author succeeds in explaining all concepts with hardly any formulas. The chapters are loaded with examples to illustrate past and current attempts to develop and deploy LBS both outdoor and indoor. The broad experience of the author with LBS is apparent at every page. In an attempt to be descriptive, the author omits to describe requirements and system specifications and performance.”

-- Gerard Lachapelle, CRC/iCORE Chair in Wireless Location Dept of Geomatics Eng, University of Calgary

“It is relatively jargon free which is a positive…Those readers with passing familiarity with sensors, engineering, radio, statistics, college level math and networks should have no trouble understanding the material…well organized and easy to follow. It leads the reader through a lot of material at the proper depth of a primer… provides sufficient depth and information for a semi-technical person to make informed decisions about the technology…Comprehensive…Good depiction of various signal processing techniques for resolving position and location…Graphics and especially signal propagation graphics will help the reader understand limitations and environments that will cause issues…The mapping/fingerprinting section is excellent… Map-matching sections and explanation of geometric is very strong…Explanation of models and data is excellent and appropriate.”

--comments from John Dmohowski

”When I began research about LBS several years ago, I found there was no book or survey paper that offered a quick overview of local positioning systems. This excellent work solves this problem. This book introduces several case studies, showing the details on how they are set up. Especially valuable is its detailed coverage concerning the infrastructure of building a LBS system. The most awesome thing is that this is the first book that clearly discusses how to deploy a LBS system. In summary, this is an excellent reference book for any researchers and engineers interested in developing a local positioning system.”

--Changsong Shen, University of British Columbia

Table of Contents

The Three L’s: Location, Location, Location

Application Examples and Use Cases

People/Asset Management and Tracking

Health Care and Mobile Patient Monitoring



Location-Based Network Access/Security


Retail and Shopping

Retail, Advertisement, and Marketing

Retail and Postanalysis of Shopping Behavior

Tour Guides


Preconditions and Frameworks for LBS Development

Preconditions (LBS Market and Development)

A Framework for Developing Indoor Location-Based Services

Four Dimensions of Development

Three Steps to Location Service Development


The Infrastructure Components

The Software Infrastructure

Communication Infrastructure

Example: Crickets in the MIT Facilities Environment

Positioning Infrastructure

Sensor Systems for Indoor Position Computation

Positioning Systems and Algorithms

Positioning Algorithms

Position Estimation Algorithms

Location Awareness and Navigation in Location-Based Systems

Indoor Data

Sources for Location Data

Two-Dimensional vs. Three-Dimensional

Spatial Reference Systems

Network Path Planning



Referencing Algorithms

Expressing World Models

Spatial Database Systems

Navigation Algorithms

Map-Matching Algorithms


Existing Indoor Location Systems: How They Work

Featured Indoor Location Positioning Systems

Ekahau Positioning System

Intel Place Lab and Skyhook WPS

Microsoft Research Radar

Rosum TV


BLIP Systems

Modeling Location

Mobile Location Protocol

OGC Languages: SensorML, GML, Etc.

Nexus Augmented World Modeling Language and Augmented World Query Language

Navigation Modeling Languages

Service Deployment

Step 1: Site Survey

Step 2: Create a Positioning Model

Step 3: Calibrate the Positioning Model/Signal Map (Training)

Step 4: Access Point Placement and Configuration

Step 5: Tracking

Step 6: Maintenance (Periodic Accuracy Test)

Using the Ekahau Positioning System

Using MIT Cricket

Using Place Lab


Privacy Concerns and Methods for Safeguarding Privacy


Connection-Level Privacy: Location–Identifier Split

Service-Level Privacy: Identifiers as a Privacy Problem

Application-Level Privacy: Visualization of Privacy

Development and Deployment of Indoor Location-Based Services


Location Fingerprinting

Potential Issues When Deploying a Wi-Fi-Based Positioning System

Integrating Different Systems

Developing the Location Database

Creating the Software Infrastructure

Questions to Ask When Selecting Application Servers

The Application Data Flow


Using Filters in Servlets

Content Comparison and Equivalence

Temporal Context

Interval Operators

Composite/Sequence Pattern Operators

Syntax Examples

Interfaces to External Services


Interoperability and the Role of Standardization

Standards Frameworks

OMA Location Working Group

The Success of Standards: Adoption


Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
COMPUTERS / Computer Engineering
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Remote Sensing & Geographic Information Systems
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Mobile & Wireless Communications