"Everything that sustains us – grown, mined, or drilled – begins its journey to us on a low-volume road (Long)." Defined as roads with traffic volumes of no more than 400 vehicles per day, they have enormous impacts on economies, communication, and social interaction. Low-volume roads comprise, at one end of the spectrum, farm-to-market roads, roads in developing countries, northern roads, roads on aboriginal lands and parklands; and at the other end of the spectrum, heavy haul roads for mining, oil and gas, oil sands extraction, and forestry.
Low-Volume Road Engineering: Design, Construction, and Maintenancegives an international perspective to the engineering design of low-volume roads and their construction and maintenance. It is a single reference drawing from the dispersed literature. It lays out the basic principles of each topic, from road location and geometric design, pavement design, slope stability and erosion control, through construction to maintenance, then refers the reader to more comprehensive treatment elsewhere. Wherever possible, comparisons are made between the standard specifications and practices existing in the US, Canada, the UK, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand.
Topics covered include the following:
- Road classification, location, and geometric design
- Pavement concepts, materials, and thickness design
- Drainage, erosion and sediment control, and watercrossings
- Slope stability
- Road construction, maintenance, and maintenance management
Low-Volume Road Engineering: Design, Construction, and Maintenance is a valuable reference for engineers, planners, designers and project managers in consulting firms, contracting firms and NGOs. It also is an essential reference in support of university courses on transportation engineering and planning, and on mining, oil and gas, and forestry infrastructure.
Table of Contents
Introduction to Low-Volume Roads
Significance of Low-Volume Roads
Definition of a Low-Volume Road
Approaching the Subject of LVR
A Philosophical Exercise
Road Location Considerations
Road Location Process
How Much of the Full Process Is Actually Carried Out?
Degree of Horizontal Curvature
The U.S. System
The Canadian System
The UK System
The South African System
The Australian System
A Novel System
Design Vehicles and the Geometric Design of Haul Roads
Stopping Sight Distance
Coefficient of Side Friction
Spiral Transition Curves
Lateral Clearance and Cleared Right of Way Width
Railway Crossings at Grade
Critical Length of Grade
Crest Vertical Curves
Sag Vertical Curves
One-Lane, Two-Way Roads
Purposes of Pavements
Road Cross Section Components
Pavement Load-Carrying Mechanisms
Tests of Aggregates
Specification of Aggregates
Subgrade Soil Stabilization Materials
Inputs to Pavement Design
Types of Pavement Design Methods
Selected Pavement Design Methods
U.S. Mechanistic-Empirical Design Method
Heavy-Duty Pavement Design for Haul Roads
Pumping and Potholes
Soil Erosion and Sedimentation Control
Soil Erosion Process
Which Is Preferable, Erosion Control or Sedimentation Control?
Fords and Low-Water Crossings
Watercourse Crossing Location
Plane Translational Failures
Circular Failures, Φu = 0 Methods of Slices Bishop’s Modified Method of Slices Software Selection of Method Remedial Action Other Types of Slope Failures References
Geosynthetic Types and Manufacture
ROAD CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE
Budgeting and Programming
Forms of Contract
Insurance and Bonds
Earthwork Volume Calculations
Construction in Labor-Intensive Environments
Maintenance Administration and Planning
Gravel- and Earth-Surfaced Roads
Pavement Maintenance and Rehabilitation Management
Priority Planning and Programming
Costs and Benefits
Management at the Network and Project Levels
An Appropriate Pavement Maintenance and Rehabilitation Management System (PMS) for LVR
Capturing the Current Condition of the Pavement Network
Modeling the Future Condition of the Pavement Network
Selecting the Maintenance or Rehabilitation Treatment
Putting It All Together
Managing Resource Access Roads
Robert Douglas has over thirty five years' experience in low-volume road engineering consulting, teaching and research. He has been a senior geotechnical engineer with an international consulting firm, and on the academic staff of forest engineering programs at the University of New Brunswick, Canada and at the National School of Forestry at the University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
"A useful source of information for designing, building and maintaining roads, many of which may be constructed in rural areas in developing nations."
— World Highways, August 2016
"This book treats low-volume roads in the broader context of transport connectivity and logistics, emphasizing the quintessential role such roads have in improving access and mobility, especially in rural areas... There is no recent book in the market that is comparable to this text."
—Asif Faiz, Former World Bank Highways Adviser, USA
"It is simple yet informative and makes the reader interested in the topic. [A] well-written book."
—Anand Puppala, The University of Texas at Arlington, USA
"I like the approach and the selection of topics, which presents technical but also philosophical contents. … intrigued me enough to want to have this book on my shelf."
—Filippo Giammaria Pratico, University Mediterranea of Reggio Calabria, Italy