Lubrication Fundamentals, Revised and Expanded  book cover
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3rd Edition

Lubrication Fundamentals, Revised and Expanded



ISBN 9781498752909
Published March 17, 2016 by CRC Press
608 Pages 363 Color Illustrations

 
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Book Description

Careful selection of the right lubricant(s) is required to keep a machine running smoothly. Lubrication Fundamentals, Third Edition, Revised and Expanded describes the need and design for the many specialized oils and greases used to lubricate machine elements and builds on the tribology and lubrication basics discussed in previous editions.

Utilizing knowledge from leading experts in the field, the third edition covers new lubrication requirements, crude oil composition and selection, base stock manufacture, lubricant formulation and evaluation, machinery and lubrication fundamentals, and environmental stewardship. The book combines lubrication theory with practical knowledge, and provides many useful illustrations to highlight key industrial, commercial, marine, aviation, and automotive lubricant applications and concepts. All previous edition chapters have been updated to include new technologies, applications, and specifications that have been introduced in the past 15 years.

What’s New in the Third Edition:

  • Adds three new chapters on the growing renewable energy application of wind turbines, the impact of lubricants on energy efficiency, and best practice guidelines on establishing an in-service lubricant analysis program
  • Updates API, SAE, and ACEA engine oil specifications, descriptions of new engine oil tests, impact of engine and fuel technology trends on engine oil
  • Includes the latest environmental lubricant tests, definitions, and labelling programs
  • Compiles expert information from ExxonMobil publications and the foremost international equipment builders and industry associations
  • Covers key influences impacting lubricant formulations and technology
  • Offers data on global energy demand and interesting statistics such as the worldwide population of nuclear reactors, wind turbines, and output of hydraulic turbines
  • Presents new sections on the history of synthetic lubricants and hazardous chemical labeling for lubricants

Whether used as a training guide for industry novices, a textbook for students to understand lubrication principles, or a technical reference for experienced lubrication and tribology professionals, Lubrication Fundamentals, Third Edition, Revised and Expanded is a "must read" for maintenance professionals, lubricant formulators and marketers, chemists, and lubrication, surface, chemical, mechanical, and automotive engineers.

Table of Contents

Introduction
Premodern History of Petroleum
Petroleum in North America
Development of Lubricants
History of Synthetic Lubricants
Future Prospects
Bibliography

Lubricant Base Stock Production and Application
Lubricant Base Stocks and Their Application
Role of Crude Oil in the Manufacture of Base Stock
Refinery Processing—Separation versus Conversion
Conventional Solvent Processing
Conversion Processing
Base Stock Composition
Bibliography

Lubricating Oils
Additives
Physical and Chemical Characteristics
Evaluation and Performance Tests
Engine Tests for Oil Performance
Automotive Gear Lubricants
ATFs
Bibliography

Lubricating Greases
Why Greases Are Used
Composition of Grease
Manufacture of Grease
Grease Characteristics
Evaluation and Performance Tests
Bibliography

Synthetic Lubricants
SHFs
Organic Esters
Polyglycols
Phosphate Esters
Bibliography

Environmental Lubricants
Environmental Considerations
Definitions and Test Procedures
Environmental Criteria
Environmental Characteristics of Various Base Stocks
Product Availability and Performance
Product Selection Process
Converting to EALs
Bibliography

Hydraulics
Basic Principles
System Components
Controlling Pressure and Flow
Actuators
Oil Reservoirs
Oil Qualities Required by Hydraulic Systems
Hydraulic Fluid Types
Hydraulic System Maintenance
Bibliography

Lubricating Films and Machine Elements: Bearings, Slides, Guides, Ways, Gears, Cylinders, Couplings, Chains, Wire Ropes
Types of Lubricating Films
Plain Bearings
Rolling Element Bearings
Slides, Guides, and Ways
Linear Motion Guides
Gears
Lubricant Characteristics for Enclosed Gears
Lubrication of Open Gears
Cylinders
Flexible Couplings
Drive Chains
Wire Ropes
Bibliography

Application of Lubricants
All-Loss Methods
Reuse Methods
Other Reuse Methods
Centralized Application Systems
Bibliography

Internal Combustion Engines
Design and Construction Considerations
Fuel and Combustion Considerations
Operating Considerations
Maintenance Considerations
Engine Oil Characteristics
Oil Recommendations by Application
Bibliography

Automotive Transmissions and Drive Trains
Clutches
Transmissions
Drive Shafts and Universal Joints
Transaxles
Other Gear Cases
Automotive Gear Lubricants
Torque Converter and ATFs
Multipurpose Tractor Fluids
Bibliography

Automotive Chassis Components
Suspension and Steering Linkages
Steering Gear
Wheel Bearings
Brake Systems
Medium- and Heavy-Duty Truck Chassis
Bibliography

Stationary Gas Turbines
Principles of Gas Turbines
Jet Engines for Industrial and Marine Propulsion Use
Gas Turbine Applications
Lubrication of Gas Turbines
Bibliography

Steam Turbines
Steam Turbine Operation
Turbine Control Systems
Lubricated Components
Bibliography

Hydraulic Turbines
Turbine Types
Lubricated Parts
Lubricant Recommendations
Bibliography

Wind Turbines
Wind Turbine Overview
General Considerations for Wind Turbine Lubrication
Bibliography

Nuclear Power Generation
Reactor Types
Radiation Effects on Petroleum Products
Lubrication Recommendations
Bibliography

Compressors
Reciprocating Air and Gas Compressors
Rotary Compressors
Dynamic Compressors
Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Compressors
Bibliography

Lubricant Contribution to Energy Efficiency
Friction Loss Mechanisms
Hydrodynamic Fluid Films
Friction Losses in Hydraulic Systems
Vehicle and Internal Combustion Engine Efficiency
Bibliography

Handling, Storing, and Dispensing Lubricants
Hazardous Chemical Labeling for Lubricants
Handling
Storing
Dispensing
Bibliography

Practices for Lubricant Conservation and Machinery Reliability
Overview of In-Plant Lubricant Handling
Product Selection
In-Service Handling
In-Service Lubricant Purification
Reclamation of Lubricating Oils
Reclamation Units (Oil Conditioners)
Waste Oil Collection and Routing
Equipment Commissioning and Flushing
Final Disposal
Bibliography

In-Service Lubricant Analysis
Establishing an In-Service Lubricant Analysis Program
Used Oil Analysis Program Startup Recommendations
In-Service Lubricant Analysis Testing
Interpretation of Used Oil Analysis Results

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Author(s)

Biography

Don M. Pirro is the global alliance technical manager at ExxonMobil Research and Engineering, Paulsboro, New Jersey. He started his career in 1978 as a test engineer for Ingersoll Rand’s Turbo Compressor Division. He has more than 36 years of lubrication experience with ExxonMobil in various technical positions. He is the author or contributing editor of several scholarly articles on synthetic lubes, environmental awareness applications, grease technology, lubricant interchangeability, used oil analysis, and marine lubricants. He graduated from Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, with degrees in mechanical engineering and business administration.

Ekkehard Daschner is the industrial lubricant section head and greases technology program lead at ExxonMobil Research and Engineering, Paulsboro, New Jersey. Daschner earned his mechanical engineering degree in Germany and started his career in an aluminum company. In 1982, he joined the Mobil Oil AG R&D laboratory in Germany supporting product development projects. After holding various positions in technical support, he was appointed Area Sales Director and Brand Manager in Germany and the European headquarters in London and Brussels, and later served as European and later as Global Industrial and Marine Equipment Builder Services Manager.

Martin Webster is a senior research associate at ExxonMobil Research and Engineering, Annandale, New Jersey. He earned his BS and MS in aeronautical engineering and his PhD in tribology from Imperial College, London, UK. In 1986, he was awarded the Bronze Medal in tribology from the Institute of Mechanical Engineers in the UK. After spending four years working in the UK, he joined ExxonMobil in 1989. At ExxonMobil, Martin has held various positions in research and product development and is currently involved in the study of fundamental lubrication mechanisms at the company’s Corporate Strategic Research Laboratory.

Reviews

"… a key foundation reference which any serious practitioner in our field should have—and read... it could easily fit into the course materials used in some of the new undergraduate programs arising in our universities."
—Robert M. Gresham, Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

"This book is of great value for those working in industries where effective lubrication is a key factor for obtaining solutions with a high reliability. The book gives an excellent description of the lubrication mechanisms and the impact of lubricant selection on performance. The authors have done a great job in compiling lubrication knowledge of so many applications in a single book."
—Piet M. Lugt, SKF Engineering and Research Centre, University of Twente, The Netherlands

"…an intensely practical and thorough reference resource, both for those involved in the practical side of lubricants and lubrication such as designers, lubricant salespersons and service engineers, and also for researchers who should know more about lubricants and lubricated machines. I heartily recommend it."
Tribology Letters, June 2016