1st Edition

MIMO Antennas for Wireless Communication Theory and Design

    222 Pages 132 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    220 Pages 132 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    The desired objective of this book is to investigate diversity and mutual coupling effects on MIMO antenna designs for WLAN/WiMAX/LTE applications, controlled with diversity and ground modification techniques including equivalent circuit diagrams. Diversity techniques in MIMO antennas leading to the performance improvement ratings are demonstrated and deliberated. The book contributes towards the development of 2:1 VSWR MIMO antennas with diversity techniques for indoor/outdoor applications for high data rate, QOS, and SNR. The improved MIMO antenna structures are investigated and presented in this book including part of massive MIMO to provide the important aspects of emerging technology. Aimed at researchers, professionals and graduate students in electrical engineering, electromagnetics, communications and signal processing including antenna theory and design, smart antennas, communication systems, this book:

    • Investigates real time MIMO antenna designs for WLAN/WiMAX/LTE applications.
    • Covers effects of ECC, MEG, TARC, and equivalent circuit.
    • Addresses the coupling and diversity aspects of antenna design problem for MIMO systems.
    • Focus on the MIMO antenna designs for the real time applications.
    • Exclusive chapter on 5G Massive MIMO along with case studies throughout the book.

    1 Introduction
    1.1 Fundamentals of MIMO Antennas
    1.2 Motivation and Scope
    1.3 Organization of Book
    2 Theory of MIMO
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Wireless Channel Limitations
    2.2.1 Fading Large Scale Fading Small Scale Fading
    2.2.2 E ect of Interference on Channel Capacity Co-Channel Interference and Capacity Adjacent Channel Interference and Capacity Power and Interference
    2.3 Approaches to Improve Capacity
    2.3.1 Cell Splitting
    2.3.2 Sector Forming
    2.3.3 Repeaters
    2.3.4 Microcell Zones
    2.4 Concluding Remarks
    3 Applications of MIMO
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 Functions of MIMO
    3.3 Types of MIMO
    3.4 Applications of MIMO
    3.5 Concluding Remarks
    4 MIMO Antenna Performance Criteria
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 Performance Criteria of MIMO Antenna
    4.2.1 Reflection Coe□cient and VSWR
    4.2.2 Transmitted and Reflected Powers
    4.2.3 Transmission Coe□cient
    4.2.4 Envelope Correlation Coe□cient (ECC)
    4.2.5 Total Active Reflection Coe□cient (TARC)
    4.2.6 Channel Capacity
    4.2.7 Mean E ective Gain (MEG)
    4.2.8 Spectral E□ciency
    4.2.9 MIMO Mode
    4.3 Concluding Remarks
    5 5G Massive MIMO Technology
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 Massive MIMO
    5.3 Channel Estimation in Massive MIMO
    5.4 Spatial Diversity/Multiplexing
    5.5 Beamforming
    5.5.1 Types of Beamforming Techniques
    5.6 Advantages of Massive MIMO
    5.7 Concluding Remarks
    6 Mutual Coupling Reduction Techniques in MIMO Designs: An in-depth Survey
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Diversity Techniques
    6.2.1 Space Diversity
    6.2.2 Polarization Diversity
    6.2.3 Pattern Diversity
    6.3 Mutual Coupling Reduction Techniques
    6.3.1 Parasitic Element/Structure Approach
    6.3.2 Neutralization Line Approach
    6.3.3 Slit and Slot Etching Approach
    6.3.4 Coupling/Decoupling Structure Approach
    6.3.5 Metamaterials Approach
    6.3.6 Shorting Pins/Posts
    6.3.7 Feeding Technique
    6.3.8 Ground Branches/Utilization
    6.4 MIMO Antenna Miniaturization Techniques
    6.5 Concluding Remarks
    7 Design and Analysis of Multi-Band Printed MIMO Antenna with Diversity and Partially Stepped Ground
    7.1 Introduction and Related Work
    7.2 Multi-Band MIMO Antenna Design and Implementation
    7.3 Simulation-Measurement Results and Discussion
    7.4 Concluding Remarks
    8 Design and Analysis of Wide-Band MIMO Antenna With Diversity and Partially Extended Ground
    8.1 Introduction and Related Work
    8.2 Wide-Band MIMO Antenna Design and Implementation
    8.3 Simulation-Measurement Results and Discussion
    8.4 Concluding Remarks
    9 Design and Analysis of Circularly Polarized MIMO Antenna for WLAN Application
    9.1 Introduction and Related Work
    9.2 CP-MIMO Antenna Design and Implementation
    9.3 Simulation-Measurement Results and Discussion
    9.4 Concluding Remarks
    10 MIMO Antenna Designs with Diversity Techniques for LTE Applications
    10.1 Introduction
    10.2 Design and Analysis of C-Shaped Folded Loop MIMO Radiator
    10.2.1 Introduction and Related Work
    10.2.2 Folded Loop MIMO Antenna Design and Implementation
    10.2.3 Simulation-Measurement Results and Discussion
    10.3 Design and Analysis of Mathematically Inspired Dual Curved
    MIMO Radiator
    10.3.1 Introduction and Related Work
    10.3.2 MIMO Antenna Design and Implementation
    10.3.3 Simulation-Measurement Results and Discussion
    10.4 Concluding Remarks
    11 MIMO Antenna Designs for WLAN/WiMAX Applications with 1 x 2 Power Divider Arms
    11.1 Introduction
    11.2 Design and Analysis of Pentagonal Shaped O set Planar MIMO for Omni-Directional Radiation Patterns
    11.2.1 Introduction and Related Work
    11.2.2 MIMO Antenna Design and Implementation
    11.2.3 Simulation-Measurement Results and Discussion
    11.3 Design and Analysis of Multi-Band MIMO with Very Compact Radiating Element
    11.3.1 Introduction and Related Work
    11.3.2 MIMO Antenna Design and Implementation
    11.3.3 Simulation-Measurement Results and Discussion
    11.4 Concluding Remarks
    12 Concluding Remarks and Future Perspective
    12.1 Contribution of the Book
    12.2 Future Perspective


    Leeladhar Malviya received his Ph.D from IIT Roorkee, India in 2017. He received his ME in Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering from Shri G. S. Institute of Technology and Science, Indore, India, in 2008, and BE in Electronics and Communication, from the Govt. Engineering College, Ujjain, India, in 1998. Since 2001, he has been with Shri G. S. Institute of Technology and Science, Indore (MP), India, and serving as an Associate Professor. His current research interests include compact multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) antennas for high data rate communications for 4G, 5G, and THz planar microstrip antennas, fractal antennas, and metamaterial antennas for communication. He is a Member of IEEE, Institution of Electronics and Telecommunications Engineers (IETE, India), Institution of Engineers (IE, India), and Indian Society for Technical Education (ISTE). He is the reviewer of IET (Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation – MAP), PIER (Progress In Electromagnetics Research of the Electromagnetics Academy, USA), and Int. Journal of RF and Microwave Computer Aided Engineering.

    Rajib Kumar Panigrahi received PhD degree from IIT Guwahati, India in 2011. He received M. Tech. degree from CUSAT, Kerala, India and B.E. degree in Electronics and Communication from Bangalore University (Now VTU), India. Since 2012, he has been with IIT Roorkee, India, where he is currently serving as an Associate Professor in the Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering. His current research focuses on Radar signal processing, Radar based remote sensing, target detection, and Denoising, segmentation and classification of polarimetric SAR images, and MIMO antenna design.

    Professor M.V. Kartikeyan received the Master of Science and Ph.D. Degrees specializing in Advanced Electronics and Radio Physics and Electronics Engineering from Banaras Hindu University and IIT-BHU, Varanasi, India, in 1985 and 1992, respectively. He was a Research Scientist with the Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute, Pilani, India, from 1989 to 2001. He was with Institut für Hochleistungsimpuls-und Mikrowellentechnik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany (1996, 1998-2000, 2001-2003; and during summers in 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2011, 2012).  He joined the Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Roorkee, India, as an Associate Professor, in 2003, and elevated to Full-Professor in 2009. He worked as Head of the Institute Computer Center (January 2012- April 2014) and Head of the Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering (May 2013 – February 2016). At present, Prof. Kartikeyan is working as a Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering at Indian Institute of Technology Tirupati, on deputation since October 2020. He is the principal author of four books entitled: (i) Gyrotrons-High Power Microwave and Millimeter Wave Technology, (ii) Soft Computing Methods for Microwave and Millimeter Wave Design Problems, (iii) Fractal Apertures in Waveguides, Conducting Screens and Cavities-Analysis and Design, and (iv) Compact antennas for high data rate communications: Ultra-wideband (UWB) and Multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) technology (Springer, 2004/2012/2014/2017). His current research interests include millimeter/THz wave engineering (sources and allied components), RF Circuits, Antennas and Systems, Metamaterials and fractals in RF domain, and RF and microwave design with soft computing techniques. Prof. Kartikeyan is a Fellow of IEEE (USA), Fellow of IET (UK), Fellow of IETE (India), Fellow of IE (India), and Fellow of VEDAS (India). Prof. Kartikeyan is a recipient of the Hildegard-Maier Research Fellowship for Electrical Sciences of the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation (1998-2000) and the Alexander von Humboldt Research Fellowship (2001-2003, 2011, 2012).