Magnetic Anisotropies in Nanostructured Matter: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Magnetic Anisotropies in Nanostructured Matter

1st Edition

By Peter Weinberger

Chapman and Hall/CRC

310 pages | 119 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2008-12-17
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Description

One of the Top Selling Physics Books according to YBP Library Services

Magnetic Anisotropies in Nanostructured Matter presents a compact summary of all the theoretical means to describe magnetic anisotropies and interlayer exchange coupling in nanosystems. The applications include free and capped magnetic surfaces, magnetic atoms on metallic substrates, nanowires, nanocontacts, and domain walls. Some applications also deal with temperature-dependent effects and ab initio magnetization dynamics.

The author clarifies parallel and antiparallel, the distinction between classical spin vectors and spinors, and the actual form of spin–orbit interactions, before showing how symmetry can provide the formal tools to properly define magnetic structures. After these introductory chapters, the book presents methods to describe anisotropic physical properties of magnetic nanostructures. It then focuses on magnetic anisotropy energies, exchange and Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interactions, temperature-dependent effects, spin dynamics, and related properties of systems nanostructured in one and two dimensions. The book also discusses how methods of describing electric and magneto-optical properties are applied to magnetic nanostructured matter. It concludes with an outlook on emerging magnetic anisotrophic effects.

Written by a leading researcher with over 35 years of experience in the field, this book examines the theory and modeling of magnetic anisotropies in nanostructured materials. It shows how these materials are used in a range of applications.

Table of Contents

Introduction

Preliminary Considerations

Parallel, antiparallel, collinear, and noncollinear

Characteristic volumina

"Classical" spin vectors and spinors

The famous spin–orbit interaction

Symmetry Considerations

Translational invariance

Rotational invariance

Colloquial or parent lattices

Tensorial products of spin and configuration

Cell-dependent potentials and exchange fields

Magnetic configurations

Green’s Functions and Multiple Scattering

Resolvents and Green’s functions

The Dyson equation

Scaling transformations

Integrated density of states

Superposition of individual potentials

The scattering path operator

Angular momentum and partial wave representations

Single particle Green’s function

Symmetry aspects

Charge and magnetization densities

Changing the orientation of the magnetization

Screening transformations

The embedded cluster method

The Coherent Potential Approximation

Configurational averages

Restricted ensemble averages

The coherent potential approximation

The single-site coherent potential approximation

Complex lattices and layered systems

Remark with respect to systems nanostructured in two dimensions

Calculating Magnetic Anisotropy Energies

Total energies

The magnetic force theorem

Magnetic dipole–dipole interactions

Exchange and Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya Interactions

The free energy and its angular derivatives

An intermezzo: classical spin Hamiltonians

Relations to relativistic multiple scattering theory

The Disordered Local Moment Method (DLM)

The relativistic DLM method for layered systems

Approximate DLM approaches

Spin Dynamics

The phenomenological Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation

The semiclassical Landau–Lifshitz equation

Constrained density functional theory

The semiclassical Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation

First principles spin dynamics for magnetic systems nanostructured in two dimensions

The Multiple Scattering Scheme

The quantum mechanical approach

Methodological aspects in relation to magnetic anisotropies

Physical properties related to magnetic anisotropies

Nanostructured in One Dimension: Free and Capped Magnetic Surfaces

Reorientation transitions

Trilayers, interlayer exchange coupling

Temperature dependence

A short summary

Nanostructured in One Dimension: Spin Valves

Interdiffusion at the interfaces

Spin valves and noncollinearity

Switching energies and the phenomenological Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation

Heterojunctions

Summary

Nanostructured in Two Dimensions: Single Atoms, Finite Clusters, and Wires

Finite clusters

Finite wires and chains of magnetic atoms

Aspects of noncollinearity

Nanostructured in Two Dimensions: Nanocontacts, Local Alloys

Quantum corrals

Magnetic adatoms and surface states

Nanocontacts

Local alloys

Summary

A Mesoscopic Excursion: Domain Walls

Theory of Electric and Magneto-Optical Properties

Linear response theory

Kubo equation for independent particles

Electric transport—the static limit

The Kubo–Greenwood equation

Optical transport

Electric Properties of Magnetic Nanostructured Matter

The bulk anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR)

Current-in-plane (CIP) and the giant magnetoresistance (GMR)

Current-perpendicular to the planes of atoms (CPP)

Tunneling conditions

Spin-valves

Heterojunctions

Systems nanostructured in two dimensions

Domain wall resistivities

Summary

Magneto-Optical Properties of Magnetic Nanostructured Matter

The macroscopic model

The importance of the substrate

The Kerr effect and interlayer exchange coupling

The Kerr effect and magnetic anisotropy energy

The Kerr effect in the case of repeated multilayers

How surface sensitive is the Kerr effect?

Summary

Time Dependence

Terra incognita

Pump-probe experiments

Pulsed electric fields

Spin currents and torques

Instantaneous resolvents and Green’s functions

Time-dependent multiple scattering

Physical effects to be encountered

Expectations

Afterword

Index

About the Series

Condensed Matter Physics

Learn more…

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI051000
SCIENCE / Nuclear Physics
SCI055000
SCIENCE / Physics
TEC021000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Material Science
TEC027000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Nanotechnology & MEMS