2nd Edition

Magnetics, Dielectrics, and Wave Propagation with MATLAB® Codes

By Carmine Vittoria Copyright 2024
    492 Pages 220 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Future microwave, wireless communication systems, computer chip designs, and sensor systems will require miniature fabrication processes in the order of nanometers or less as well as the fusion of various material technologies to produce composites consisting of many different materials. This requires distinctly multidisciplinary collaborations, implying that specialized approaches will not be able to address future world markets in communication, computer, and electronic miniaturized products.

    Anticipating that many students lack specialized simultaneous training in magnetism and magnetics, as well as in other material technologies, Magnetics, Dielectrics, and Wave Propagation with MATLABR Codes avoids application-specific descriptions, opting for a general point of view of materials per se. Specifically, this book develops a general theory to show how a magnetic system of spins is coupled to acoustic motions, magnetoelectric systems, and superconductors. Phenomenological approaches are connected to atomic-scale formulations that reduce complex calculations to essential forms and address basic interactions at any scale of dimensionalities. With simple and clear coverage of everything from first principles to calculation tools, the book revisits fundamentals that govern magnetic, acoustic, superconducting, and magnetoelectric motions at the atomic and macroscopic scales, including superlattices.

    Constitutive equations in Maxwell’s equations are introduced via general free energy expressions which include magnetic parameters as well as acoustic, magnetoelectric, semiconductor, and superconducting parameters derived from first principles. More importantly, this book facilitates the derivation of these parameters, as the dimensionality of materials is reduced toward the microscopic scale, thus introducing new concepts. The deposition of ferrite films at the atomic scale complements the approach toward the understanding of the physics of miniaturized composites. Thus, a systematic formalism of deriving the permeability or the magnetoelectric coupling tensors from first principles, rather than from an ad hoc approach, bridges the gap between microscopic and macroscopic principles as applied to wave propagation and other applications.


    Preface to the New Additions



    1. Review of Maxwell Equations and Units 

    Maxwell Equations in MKS System of Units

    Major and Minor Magnetic Hysteresis Loops

    Tensor and Dyadic Quantities

    Maxwell Equations in Gaussian System of Units

    External, Surface, and Internal Electromagnetic Fields


    Appendix 1.A: Conversion of Units



    2. Classical Principles of Magnetism 

    Historical Background

    First Observation of Magnetic Resonance

    Definition of Magnetic Dipole Moment

    Magnetostatics of Magnetized Bodies

    Electrostatics of Electric Dipole Moment

    Relationship between B and H Fields

    General Definition of Magnetic Moment

    Classical Motion of the Magnetic Moment


    Appendix 2.A



    3. Introduction to Magnetism 

    Energy Levels and Wave Functions of Atoms

    Spin Motion

    Intra-Exchange Interactions

    Heisenberg Representation of Exchange Coupling

    Multiplet States

    Hund Rules

    Spin–Orbit Interaction

    Lande gJ-Factor

    Effects of Magnetic Field on a Free Atom

    Crystal Field Effects on Magnetic Ions

    Superexchange Coupling between Magnetic Ions

    Double Superexchange Coupling

    Ferromagnetism in Magnetic Metals


    Appendix 3.A: Matrix Representation of Quantum Mechanics



    4. Deposition of Artificial Ferrite Films at the Atomic Scale

    Historical Background to the birth of the ATLAD Technique

    Deposition of Ferrite Films by the Laser Ablation Technique

    A. Deposition of Spinel Ferrite Films at the Atomic Scale – ATLAD Technique

    1. Films of Lithium Ferrite Doped with Al2O3.

    2. Deposition of Single Crystal Films of MnF2O4

    3. Deposition of Single Crystal Films of CuFe2O4

    B. Deposition of Hexaferrite Films at the Atomic Scale – ATLAD Technique

    1. Deposition of Single Crystal Films of Barium Ferrite – BaFe12O19

    2. Deposition of Single Crystal Films of MaFe12-xMnxO19

    Concluding Remarks




    5. Free Magnetic Energy 

    Thermodynamics of Noninteracting Spins: Paramagnets

    Ferromagnetic Interaction in Solids

    Ferrimagnetic Ordering

    Spinwave Energy

    Effects of Thermal Spinwave Excitations

    Free Magnetic Energy

    Single Ion Model for Magnetic Anisotropy

    Pair Model

    Demagnetizing Field Contribution to Free Energy

    Numerical Examples

    Cubic Magnetic Anisotropy Energy

    Uniaxial Magnetic Anisotropy Energy




    6. Phenomenological Theory 

    Smit and Beljers Formulation

    Examples of Ferromagnetic Resonance

    Simple Model for Hysteresis

    General Formulation

    Connection between Free Energy and Internal Fields

    Static Field Equations

    Dynamic Equations of Motion

    Microwave Permeability

    Normal Modes

    Magnetic Relaxation

    Free Energy of Multi-Domains




    7. Electrical Properties of Magneto-Dielectric Films 

    Basic Difference between Electric and Magnetic Dipole Moments

    Electric Dipole Orientation in a Field

    Equation of Motion of Electrical Dipole Moment in a Solid

    Free Energy of Electrical Materials

    Magneto-Elastic Coupling

    Microwave Properties of Perfect Conductors

    Principles of Superconductivity: Type I

    Magnetic Susceptibility of Superconductors: Type I

    London’s Penetration Depth

    Type-II Superconductors

    Microwave Surface Impedance

    Conduction through a Non-Superconducting Constriction

    Isotopic Spin Representation of Feynman Equations


    Appendix 7.A



    8. Kramers–Kronig Equations 




    9. Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Anisotropic Magneto-Dielectric Media 

    Spinwave Dispersions for Semi-Infinite Medium

    Spinwave Dispersion at High k-Values

    The k = 0 Spinwave Limit


    Thin Films


    Surface or Localized Spinwave Excitations

    Pure Electromagnetic Modes of Propagation:

    Semi-Infinite Medium

    Coupling of the Equation of Motion and Maxwell’s Equations

    Normal Modes of Spinwave Excitations

    Magnetostatic Wave Excitations

     Perpendicular to Film Plane

     in the Film Plane

    Ferrite Bounded by Parallel Plates


    Appendix 9.A

    Perpendicular Case

    In Plane Case



    10. ATLAD Deposition of Magnetoelectric Hexaferrite Films and Their Properties

    Basic Definitions of Ferroic Materials

    Parity and Time Reversal Symmetry in Ferroics

    Tensor Properties of The Magnetoelectric Coupling in Hexaferrites

    Deposition of Single Crystal Magnetoelectric Hexaferrite Films of the M-type by the

    ATLAD technique

    Magnetometry and Magnetoelectric Measurements

    Free Magnetic Energy Representation of the Spin Spiral Configuration

    Free Energy of ME Hexaferrite

    Electromagnetic Wave Dispersion of Magnetoelectric Hexaferrites

    Analogue to a Semiconductor Transistor Three Terminals Network




    11. Spin Surface Boundary Conditions 

    A Quantitative Estimate of Magnetic Surface Energy

    Another Source of Surface Magnetic Energy

    Static Field Boundary Conditions

    Dynamic Field Boundary Conditions

    Applications of Boundary Conditions

     to the Film Plane

     to the Film Plane

    Electromagnetic Spin Boundary Conditions


    Appendix 11.A

    Perpendicular Case

    In Plane Case



    12. Matrix Representation of Wave Propagation 

    Matrix Representation of Wave Propagation in Single Layers

    (//) Case

    (⊥) Case

    The Incident Field

    Ferromagnetic Resonance in Composite Structures: No Exchange Coupling

    Ferromagnetic Resonance in Composite Structures: Exchange Coupling

    (⊥) Case

    Boundary Conditions

    (//) Case

    Boundary Conditions (// FMR)


    Appendix 12.A

    Calculation of Transmission Line Parameters from [A] Matrix

    Microwave Response to Microwave Cavity Loaded with Magnetic
    Thin Film






    Carmine Vittoria’s career spans 50–55 years in academia and goernment research establishments. His approach to scientific endeavors has been to search for the common denominator or thread that links the various sciences to make some logical sense. The fields of study include physics, electrical engineering, ceramics, metallurgy, surface or interfaces, nano-composite films. His interest in science ranges from the physics of particle–particle interaction at the atomic scale to nondestructive evaluation of bridge structures, from EPR of a blood cell to electronic damage in the presence of gamma rays, from design of computer chips to radar systems, from microscopic interfacial structures to thin film composites. The diversity and seriousness of his work and his commitment to science are evident in the ~500 publications in peer-reviewed journals, ~ 25 patents, and three other scientific books. Dr. Vittoria is also the author of a nonscientific books on soccer for children; memoirs: "Bitter Chicory to Sweet espresso", "Once Upon a Hill" and "Hidden in Plain Sight". and He is a life fellow of the IEEE (1990) and an APS fellow (1985). He has received research awards and special patent awards from government research laboratories.

    Dr. Vittoria was appointed to a professorship position in 1985 in the Electrical Engineering Department at Northeastern University, and was awarded the distinguished professorship position in 2001 and a research award in 2007 by the College of Engineering.

    In addition, he was cited for an outstanding teacher award by the special need students at Northeastern University. His teaching assignments included electromagnetics, antenna theory, microwave networks, wave propagation in magneto-dielectrics, magnetism and superconductivity, electronic materials, microelectronic circuit designs, circuit theory, electrical motors, and semiconductor devices.