1st Edition

Maintenance and Safety of Aging Infrastructure Structures and Infrastructures Book Series, Vol. 10

Edited By Dan M. Frangopol, Yiannis Tsompanakis Copyright 2015

    This book presents the latest research findings in the field of maintenance and safety of aging infrastructure. The invited contributions provide an overview of the use of advanced computational and/or experimental techniques in damage and vulnerability assessment as well as maintenance and retrofitting of aging structures and infrastructures such as buildings, bridges, lifelines and ships. Cost-efficient maintenance and management of civil infrastructure requires balanced consideration of both structural performance and the total cost accrued over the entire life-cycle considering uncertainties.

    In this context, major topics treated in this book include aging structures, climate adaptation, climate change, corrosion, cost, damage assessment, decision making, extreme events, fatigue life, hazards, hazard mitigation, inspection, life-cycle performance, maintenance, management, NDT methods, optimization, redundancy, reliability, repair, retrofit, risk, robustness, resilience, safety, stochastic control, structural health monitoring, sustainability, uncertainties and vulnerability. Applications include bridges, buildings, dams, marine structures, pavements, power distribution poles, offshore platforms, stadiums and transportation networks.

    This up-to-date overview of the field of maintenance and safety of aging infrastructure makes this book a must-have reference work for those involved with structures and infrastructures, including students, researchers and practitioners.

    About the Book Series Editor
    About the Editors
    Contributors List
    Author Data

    1 Reliability-based Durability Design and Service Life Assessment of Concrete Structures in a Marine Environment
    Mitsuyoshi Akiyama, Dan M. Frangopol and Hiroshi Matsuzaki
    1.1 Introduction
    1.2 Durability Design Criterion of RC Structures in a Marine Environment
    1.2.1 Reliability Prediction
    1.2.2 Durability Design Criterion based on Reliability
    1.3 Life-cycle Reliability Estimation of Deteriorated Existing RC Structures
    1.3.1 Effect of Spatial Distribution of Rebar Corrosion on Flexural Capacity of RC Beams
    1.3.2 Updating the Reliability of Existing RC Structures by Incorporating Spatial Variability
    1.4 Conclusions
    1.5 References

    2 Designing Bridges for Inspectability and Maintainability
    Sreenivas Alampalli
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Bridge Inspection
    2.3 Bridge Maintenance
    2.4 Role of Planning and Design
    2.5 Designing for Inspectability and Maintainability
    2.5.1 Bridge Type Selection Redundancy Jointless Bridges Weathering Steel Skew Material Type
    2.5.2 Bridge Details Bearings and Jacking Details Deck Drainage and Scuppers Joints Steel Details
    2.5.3 Access Abutments and Piers Trusses and Arches Girder Bridges Bridge Railing and Fencing
    2.6 Complex, Unique and Signature Bridges
    2.6.1 Specialized Procedures Requirement for Complex and Unique Bridges
    2.6.2 Movable Bridges
    2.6.3 Signature Bridges
    2.6.4 Bridge Security
    2.7 Conclusions
    2.8 References

    3 Structural Vulnerability Measures for Assessment of Deteriorating Bridges in Seismic Prone Areas
    Alice Alipour and Behrouz Shafei
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 Numerical Modeling of Chloride Intrusion
    3.2.1 Evaporable Water Content
    3.2.2 Chloride Binding Capacity
    3.2.3 Reference Chloride Diffusion Coefficient
    3.3 Chloride Diffusion Coefficient
    3.3.1 Ambient Temperature
    3.3.2 Relative Humidity
    3.3.3 Age of Concrete
    3.3.4 Free Chloride Content
    3.4 Estimation of Corrosion Initiation Time
    3.5 Extent of Structural Degradation
    3.6 Reinforced Concrete Bridge Models
    3.6.1 Material Properties
    3.6.2 Superstructure
    3.6.3 Columns
    3.6.4 Abutments
    3.6.5 Foundation
    3.7 Structural Capacity Evaluation of Deteriorating Bridges
    3.8 Seismic Performance of Deteriorating Bridges
    3.8.1 Probabilistic Life-Time Fragility Analysis
    3.8.2 Seismic Vulnerability Index for Deteriorating Bridges
    3.9 Conclusions
    3.10 References

    4 Design Knowledge Gain by Structural Health Monitoring
    Stefania Arangio and Franco Bontempi
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 Knowledge and Design
    4.3 System Engineering Approach & Performance-based Design
    4.4 Structural Dependability
    4.5 Structural Health Monitoring
    4.5.1 Structural Identification
    4.5.2 Neural Network-Based Data Processing
    4.6 Knowledge Gain by Structural Health Monitoring: A Case Study
    4.6.1 Description of the Considered Bridge and Its Monitoring System
    4.6.2 Application of the Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition
    4.6.3 Application of a Neural Networks-Based Approach
    4.7 Conclusions
    4.8 References

    5 Emerging Concepts and Approaches for Efficient and Realistic Uncertainty Quantification
    Michael Beer, Ioannis A. Kougioumtzoglou and Edoardo Patelli
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 Advanced Stochastic Modelling and Analysis Techniques
    5.2.1 General Remarks
    5.2.2 Versatile Signal Processing Techniques for Spectral Estimation in Civil Engineering Spectral Analysis: The Fourier Transform Non-Stationary Spectral Analysis
    5.2.3 Spectral Analysis Subject to Limited and/or Missing Data Fourier Transform with Zeros Clean Deconvolution Autoregressive Estimation Least Squares Spectral Analysis Artificial Neural Networks: A Potential Future Research Path
    5.2.4 Path Integral Techniques for Efficient Response Determination and Reliability Assessment of Civil Engineering Structures and Infrastructure Numerical Path Integral Techniques: Discrete Chapman-Kolmogorov Equation Formulation Approximate/Analytical Wiener Path Integral Techniques
    5.3 Generalised Uncertainty Models
    5.3.1 Problem Description
    5.3.2 Classification of Uncertainties
    5.3.3 Imprecise Probability
    5.3.4 Engineering Applications of Imprecise Probability
    5.3.5 Fuzzy Probabilities
    5.3.6 Engineering Applications of Fuzzy Probability
    5.4 Monte Carlo Techniques
    5.4.1 General Remarks
    5.4.2 History of Monte Carlo and Random Number Generators Random Number Generator
    5.4.3 Realizations of Random Variables and Stochastic Processes
    5.4.4 Evaluation of Integrals
    5.4.5 Advanced Methods and Future Trends Sequential Monte Carlo
    5.4.6 High Performance Computing
    5.4.7 Approaches to Lifetime Predictions Monte Carlo Simulation of Crack Initiation Monte Carlo Simulation of Crack Propagation Monte Carlo Simulation of Other Degradation Processes Lifetime Prediction and Maintenance Schedules
    5.5 Conclusions
    5.6 References

    6 Time-Variant Robustness of Aging Structures
    Fabio Biondini and Dan M. Frangopol
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Damage Modeling
    6.2.1 Deterioration Patterns
    6.2.2 Deterioration Rate
    6.2.3 Local and Global Measures of Damage
    6.3 Structural Performance Indicators
    6.3.1 Parameters of Structural Behavior
    6.3.2 Pseudo-Loads
    6.3.3 Failure Loads and Failure Times
    6.4 Measure of Structural Robustness
    6.5 Role of Performance Indicators and Structural Integrity
    6.5.1 A Comparative Study
    6.5.2 Structural Integrity Index
    6.6 Damage Propagation
    6.6.1 Propagation Mechanisms
    6.6.2 Fault-Tree Analysis
    6.7 Structural Robustness and Progressive Collapse
    6.8 Structural Robustness and Static Indeterminacy
    6.9 Structural Robustness, Structural Redundancy and Failure Times
    6.9.1 Case Study
    6.9.2 Corrosion Damage and Failure Loads
    6.9.3 Robustness and Redundancy
    6.9.4 Failure Times
    6.10 Role of Uncertainty and Probabilistic Analysis
    6.11 Conclusions
    6.12 References

    7 Extending Fatigue Life of Bridges Beyond 100 Years by using Monitored Data
    Eugen Brühwiler
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Proposed Approach
    7.2.1 Introduction
    7.2.2 Structural Safety Verification Format
    7.2.3 Determination of Updated Action Effect
    7.2.4 Safety Requirements
    7.3 Case Study of a Riveted Railway Bridge
    7.3.1 Description of the Bridge
    7.3.2 Model for Structural Analysis
    7.3.3 Monitoring
    7.3.4 Fatigue Safety Verification Step 1: Fatigue Safety Verification with Respect to the Fatigue Limit Step 2: Fatigue Damage Accumulation Calculation and Fatigue Safety Verification
    7.3.5 Discussion of the Results
    7.4 Case Study of a Highway Bridge Deck in Posttensioned Concrete
    7.4.1 Motivation
    7.4.2 Monitoring System
    7.4.3 Investigation of Extreme Action Effects
    7.4.4 Investigation of Fatigue Action Effects
    7.4.5 Discussion of the Results
    7.5 Conclusions
    7.6 References

    8 Management and Safety of Existing Concrete Structures via Optical Fiber Distributed Sensing
    Joan R. Casas, Sergi Villalba and Vicens Villalba
    8.1 Introduction
    8.2 OBR Technology: Description and Background
    8.3 Application to Concrete Structures
    8.3.1 Laboratory Test in a Reinforced Concrete Slab OBR Sensors Application
    8.3.2 Prestressed Concrete Bridge Reading Strains under 400kN Truck Reading Strains under Normal Traffic and 400kN Static Load
    8.3.3 Concrete Cooling Tower OBR sensors application
    8.4 Results and Discussion
    8.5 Conclusions
    8.6 References

    9 Experimental Dynamic Assessment of Civil Infrastructure
    Álvaro Cunha, Elsa Caetano, Filipe Magalhães and Carlos Moutinho
    9.1 Dynamic Testing and Continuous Monitoring of Civil Structures
    9.2 Excitation and Vibration Measurement Devices
    9.3 Modal Identification
    9.3.1 Overview of EMA and OMA Methods
    9.3.2 Pre-processing
    9.3.3 Frequency Domain Decomposition
    9.3.4 Stochastic Subspace Identification
    9.3.5 Poly-reference Least Squares Frequency Domain
    9.4 Mitigation of Environmental Effects on Modal Estimates and Vibration Based Damage Detection
    9.5 Examples of Dynamic Testing and Continuous Dynamic Monitoring
    9.5.1 Dynamic Testing
    9.5.2 Continuous Dynamic Monitoring Continuous Monitoring of Pedro e Inês Lively Footbridge Continuous Monitoring of Infante D. Henrique Bridge Continuous Monitoring of Braga Stadium Suspension Roof
    9.6 Conclusions
    9.7 References

    10 Two Approaches for the Risk Assessment of Aging Infrastructure with Applications
    David De Leon Escobedo, David Joaquín Delgado-Hernandez and Juan Carlos Arteaga-Arcos
    10.1 Introduction
    10.2 Use of the Expected Life-Cycle Cost to Derive Inspection Times and Optimal Safety Levels
    10.2.1 Highway Concrete Bridge in Mexico
    10.2.2 Oil Offshore Platform in Mexico Assessment of Structural Damage Initial, Damage and Life-Cycle Cost Optimal Design of an Offshore Platform Effects of Epistemic Uncertainties Minimum Life-Cycle Cost Designs
    10.3 Using Bayesian Networks to Assess the Economical Effectiveness of Maintenance Alternatives
    10.3.1 Bayesian Networks
    10.3.2 BN for the Risk Assessment of Earth Dams in Central Mexico
    10.4 Conclusions and Recommendations
    10.5 References

    11 Risk-based Maintenance of Aging Ship Structures
    Yordan Garbatov and Carlos Guedes Soares
    11.1 Introduction
    11.2 Corrosion Deterioration Modelling
    11.3 Nonlinear Corrosion Wastage Model Structures
    11.3.1 Corrosion Wastage Model Accounting for Repair
    11.3.2 Corrosion Wastage Model Accounting for the Environment
    11.3.3 Corrosion Degradation Surface Modelling
    11.4 Risk-based Maintenance Planning
    11.4.1 Analysing Failure Data
    11.4.2 Optimal Replacement – Minimization of Cost
    11.4.3 Optimal Replacement – Minimization of Downtime
    11.4.4 Optimal Inspection to Maximize the Availability
    11.4.5 Comparative Analysis of Corroded Deck Plates
    11.4.6 Risk-based Maintenance of Tankers and Bulk Carriers
    11.5 Conclusions
    11.6 References

    12 Investigating Pavement Structure Deterioration with a Relative Evaluation Model
    Kiyoyuki Kaito, Kiyoshi Kobayashi and Kengo Obama
    12.1 Introduction
    12.2 Framework of the Study
    12.2.1 Deterioration Characteristics of the Pavement Structure
    12.2.2 Benchmarking and Relative Evaluation
    12.3 Mixed Markov Deterioration Hazard Model
    12.3.1 Preconditions for Model Development
    12.3.2 Mixed Markov Deterioration Hazard Model
    12.3.3 Estimation of a Mixed Markov Deterioration Hazard Model
    12.3.4 Estimation of the Heterogeneity Parameter
    12.4 Benchmarking and Evaluation Indicator
    12.4.1 Benchmarking Evaluation
    12.4.2 Road Surface State Inspection and Benchmarking
    12.4.3 Relative Evaluation and the Extraction of Intensive Monitoring Sections
    12.4.4 FWD Survey and the Diagnosis of the Deterioration of a Pavement Structure
    12.5 Application Study
    12.5.1 Outline
    12.5.2 Estimation Results
    12.5.3 Relative Evaluation of Deterioration Rate
    12.5.4 FWD Survey for Structural Diagnosis
    12.5.5 Relation between the Heterogeneity Parameter and the Results of the FWD Survey
    12.5.6 Perspectives for Future Studies
    12.6 Conclusions
    12.7 References

    13 Constructs for Quantifying the Long-term Effectiveness of Civil Infrastructure Interventions
    Steven Lavrenz, Jackeline Murillo Hoyos and Samuel Labi
    13.1 Introduction
    13.2 The Constructs for Measuring Interventions Effectiveness
    13.2.1 Life of the Intervention Age-based Approach Condition-based Approach The Issue of Censoring and Truncation on the Age- and Condition-based Approaches
    13.2.2 Extension in the Life of the Infrastructure due to the Intervention
    13.2.3 Increase in Average Performance of the Infrastructure over the Intervention Life
    13.2.4 Increased Area Bounded by Infrastructure Performance Curve due to the Intervention
    13.2.5 Reduction in the Cost of Maintenance or Operations Subsequent to the Intervention
    13.2.6 Decrease in the Likelihood that a Specific Distress will Start to Occur within a Specified Time Period After the Intervention; or, the Increase in Time Taken for Distress to Initiate
    13.3 Conclusions
    13.4 References

    14 Risk Assessment and Wind Hazard Mitigation of Power Distribution Poles
    Yue Li, Mark G. Stewart and Sigridur Bjarnadottir
    14.1 Introduction
    14.2 Design of Distribution Poles
    14.3 Design (Nominal) Load (Sn)
    14.4 Design (Nominal) Resistance (Rn) and Degradation of Timber Poles
    14.5 Hurricane Risk Assessment of Timber Poles
    14.6 Hurricane Mitigation Strategies and Their Cost-effectiveness
    14.6.1 Mitigation Strategies
    14.6.2 Cost of Replacement (Crep) and Annual Replacement Rate (δ)
    14.6.3 Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCC) for Cost-effectiveness Evaluation
    14.7 Illustrative Example
    14.7.1 Design
    14.7.2 Risk Assessment Hurricane Fragility Updated Annual pf Considering Effects of Degradation and Climate Change
    14.7.3 Cost-effectiveness of Mitigation Strategies
    14.8 Conclusions
    14.9 References

    15 A Comparison between MDP-based Optimization Approaches for Pavement Management Systems
    Aditya Medury and Samer Madanat
    15.1 Introduction
    15.2 Methodology
    15.2.1 Top-Down Approach
    15.2.2 Bottom-Up Approaches Two Stage Bottom-Up Approach Modified Two Stage Bottom-Up Approach: Incorporating Lagrangian Relaxation Methods
    15.2.3 Obtaining Facility-Specific Policies using Top-Down Approach: A Simultaneous Network Optimization Approach
    15.3 Parametric Study
    15.3.1 Results
    15.3.2 Implementation Issues
    15.4 Conclusions and Future Work
    15.5 References

    16 Corrosion and Safety of Structures in Marine Environments
    Robert E. Melchers
    16.1 Introduction
    16.2 Structural Reliability Theory
    16.3 Progression of Corrosion with Time
    16.4 Plates, Ships, Pipelines and Sheet Piling
    16.5 Mooring Chains
    16.6 Extreme Value representation of Maximum Pit Depth Uncertainty
    16.7 Effect of Applying the Frechet Extreme Value Distribution
    16.8 Discussion of the Results
    16.9 Conclusions
    16.10 References

    17 Retrofitting and Refurbishment of Existing Road Bridges
    Claudio Modena, Giovanni Tecchio, Carlo Pellegrino, Francesca da Porto, Mariano Angelo Zanini and Marco Donà
    17.1 Introduction
    17.2 Retrofitting and Refurbishment of Common RC Bridge Typologies
    17.2.1 Degradation Processes Concrete Deterioration due to Water Penetration Cracking and Spalling of Concrete Cover due to Carbonation and Bar Oxidation
    17.2.2 Original Design and Construction Defects
    17.2.3 Rehabilitation and Retrofit of Existing RC Bridges Rehabilitation and Treatment of the Deteriorated Surfaces Static Retrofit Seismic Retrofit Functional Refurbishment
    17.3 Assessment and Retrofitting of Common Steel Bridge Typologies
    17.3.1 Original Design Defects – Fatigue Effects
    17.3.2 Degradation Processes
    17.3.3 Rehabilitation and Retrofit of the Existing Steel Decks Repair Techniques for Corroded Steel Members Rehabilitation and Strengthening Techniques for Fatigue-induced Cracks
    17.4 Assessment and Retrofitting of Common Masonry Bridge Typologies
    17.4.1 Degradation Processes and Original Design Defects
    17.4.2 Rehabilitation and Retrofit of Existing Masonry Arch Bridges Barrel Vault Spandrel Walls, Piers, Abutments and Foundations
    17.5 Conclusions
    17.6 References

    18 Stochastic Control Approaches for Structural Maintenance
    Konstantinos G. Papakonstantinou and Masanobu Shinozuka
    18.1 Introduction
    18.2 Discrete Stochastic Optimal Control with Full Observability
    18.2.1 State Augmentation
    18.3 Stochastic Optimal Control with Partial Observability
    18.3.1 Bellman Backups
    18.4 Value Function Approximation Methods
    18.4.1 Approximations based on MDP and Q-functions
    18.4.2 Grid-based Approximations
    18.4.3 Point-based Solvers Perseus Algorithm
    18.5 Optimum Inspection and Maintenance Policies with POMDPs
    18.5.1 POMDP Modeling States and Maintenance Actions Observations and Inspection Actions Rewards Joint Actions and Summary
    18.6 Results
    18.6.1 Infinite Horizon Results
    18.6.2 Finite Horizon Results
    18.7 Conclusions
    18.8 References

    19 Modeling Inspection Uncertainties for On-site Condition Assessment using NDT Tools
    Franck Schoefs
    19.1 Introduction
    19.2 Uncertainty Identification and Modeling during Inspection
    19.2.1 Sources of Uncertainties: From the Tool to the Decision Aleatory Uncertainties Epistemic Uncertainties
    19.2.2 Epistemic and Aleatory Uncertainty Modelling Probabilistic Modeling of PoD and PFA from Signal Theory Probabilistic Assessment of PoD and PFA from Statistics (Calibration) The ROC Curve as Decision Aid-Tool and Method for Detection Threshold Selection: The α–δ Method Case of Multiple Inspections Spatial and Time Dependence of ROC Curves and Detection Threshold for Degradation Processes
    19.3 Recent Concepts for Decision
    19.3.1 Bayesian Modeling for Introducing New Quantities
    19.3.2 Discussion on the Assessment of PCE
    19.3.3 Definition of the Cost Function for a Risk Assessment Modelling and Illustration Use of the α–δ Method
    19.3.4 Definition of a Two Stage Inspection Model
    19.4 Recent Developpements about Spatial Fields Assesment and Data Fusion
    19.5 Summary
    19.6 References

    20 The Meaning of Condition Description and Inspection Data Quality in Engineering Structure Management
    Marja-Kaarina Söderqvist
    20.1 Introduction
    20.2 Engineering Structures
    20.3 The Inspection System
    20.3.1 General Description
    20.3.2 Goals of Inspection
    20.3.3 Inspection Types and Intervals
    20.3.4 Handbooks and Guidelines
    20.3.5 Inspection Data
    20.3.6 Use of Inspection Results
    20.4 Condition Indicators
    20.4.1 General
    20.4.2 Data Estimated in Inspections
    20.4.3 Data Processed by the Owner
    20.5 The Management of Bridge Inspection Data Quality
    20.5.1 General Rules
    20.5.2 Tools for Data Quality Control
    20.5.3 Training of Inspectors
    20.5.4 Quality Measurement Process: A Case Application Bridge Inspector Qualifications Day for Advanced Training Quality Measurements Quality Reports of the Bridge Register Follow up of Quality Improvement Methods
    20.6 Prediction of Structure Condition
    20.6.1 Age Behaviour Modelling
    20.6.2 The Finnish Reference Bridges Model Simulation
    20.7 Maintenance, Repair and Rehabilitation Policy
    20.7.1 Goals and Targets
    20.7.2 Central Policy Definitions in the Management Process
    20.7.3 Maintenance and Repair Planning
    20.8 Conclusions
    20.9 References

    21 Climate Adaptation Engineering and Risk-based Design and Management of Infrastructure
    Mark G. Stewart, Dimitri V. Val, Emilio Bastidas-Arteaga, Alan O’Connor and Xiaoming Wang
    21.1 Introduction
    21.2 Modelling Weather and Climate-related Hazards in Conditions of Climate Change
    21.2.1 Climate Modelling
    21.2.2 Modelling Extreme Events under Non-Stationary Conditions Generalised Extreme Value Distribution for Block Maxima Generalised Pareto Distribution for Threshold Exceedance Point Process Characterisation of Extremes
    21.3 Impacts of Climate Change
    21.3.1 Corrosion and Material Degradation
    21.3.2 Frequency and Intensity of Climate Hazards
    21.3.3 Sustainability and Embodied Energy Requirements for Maintenance Strategies
    21.4 Risk-Based Decision Support
    21.4.1 Definition of Risk
    21.4.2 Cost-Effectiveness of Adaptation Strategies
    21.5 Case Studies of Optimal Design and Management of Infrastructure
    21.5.1 Resilience of Interdependent Infrastructure Systems to Floods
    21.5.2 Strengthening Housing in Queensland Against Extreme Wind
    21.5.3 Climate Change and Cost-Effectiveness of Adaptation Strategies in RC Structures Subjected to Chloride Ingress
    21.5.4 Designing On- and Offshore Wind Energy Installations to Allow for Predicted Evolutions in Wind and Wave Loading
    21.5.5 Impact and Adaptation to Coastal Inundation
    21.6 Research Challenges
    21.7 Conclusions
    21.8 References

    22 Comparing Bridge Condition Evaluations with Life-Cycle Expenditures
    Bojidar Yanev
    22.1 Introduction: Networks and Projects
    22.2 Network and Project Level Condition Assessments
    22.2.1 Potential Hazards (NYS DOT)
    22.2.2 Load Rating (AASHTO, 2010)
    22.2.3 Vulnerability (NYS DOT)
    22.2.4 Serviceability and Sufficiency (NBI)
    22.2.5 Diagnostics
    22.3 Bridge-Related Actions
    22.3.1 Maintenance
    22.3.2 Preservation
    22.3.3 Repair and Rehabilitation
    22.4 The New York City Network – Bridge Equilibrium of Supply/Demand
    22.5 Network Optimization/Project Prioritization
    22.5.1 The Preventive Maintenance Model
    22.5.2 The repair model
    22.6 Conclusions
    22.7 References

    23 Redundancy-based Design of Nondeterministic Systems
    Benjin Zhu and Dan M. Frangopol
    23.1 Introduction
    23.2 Redundancy Factor
    23.2.1 Definition
    23.2.2 Example
    23.3 Effects of Parameters on Redundancy Factor
    23.4 Redundancy Factors of Systems with Many Components
    23.4.1 Using the RELSYS program
    23.4.2 Using the MCS-based program
    23.5 Limit States for Component Design
    23.6 A Highway Bridge Example
    23.6.1 Live Load Bending Moments
    23.6.2 Dead Load Moments
    23.6.3 Mean Resistance of Girders
    23.6.4 An Additional Case: βsys,target =4.0
    23.7 Conclusions
    23.8 References

    Author Index
    Subject Index
    Structures and Infrastructures Series


    Professor Dan M. Frangopol is the first holder of the Fazlur R. Khan Endowed Chair of Structural Engineering and Architecture at Lehigh University. His main research interests are in the application of probabilistic concepts and methods to civil and marine engineering, including structural reliability, probability-based design and optimization of buildings, bridges and naval ships, structural health monitoring, life-cycle performance maintenance and management of structures and infrastructures under uncertainty, risk-based assessment and decision making, infrastructure resilience to disasters, and stochastic mechanics. Prof. Frangopol is the Founding President of the International Association for Bridge Maintenance and Safety (IABMAS) and of the International Association for Life Cycle Civil Engineering (IALCCE). He is also the founder of the recently created ASCE-SEI Technical Council on life-cycle performance, safety, reliability and risk of structural systems. He has held numerous leadership positions in national and international professional societies. Prof. Frangopol is the Founding Editor of Structure and Infrastructure Engineering an international peer-reviewed journal. He is also the Founding Editor of the Book Series Structures and Infrastructures. Prof. Frangopol is the author or co-author of more than 300 books, book chapters, and refereed journal articles, and more than 500 papers in conference proceedings. He has edited or co-edited 34 books. Prof. Frangopol has supervised the dissertations of 35 Ph.D. students (seven under current supervision) and the thesis and reports of 50 M.S. students. Many of his former students are university professors in the United States and abroad, and several are prominent in professional practice and research laboratories.

    Dr Yiannis Tsompanakis completed his studies (diploma in civil engineering and PhD in computational mechanics) in NTUA, and afterwards he is lecturing in Technical University of Crete (TUC), firstly as a visiting professor (2000-2003) and since 9/2003 as an Assistant Professor and since 9/2010 as an Associate Professor of Structural Dynamics in the Department of Applied Sciences of TUC having a permanent academic employment in TUC. He is expert in development and application of advanced computational models for the numerical simulation structures and infrastructures. His research interests include structural and geotechnical earthquake engineering, geoenvironmental engineering, dynamic soil-structure-fluid interaction, foundations and retaining structures, structural optimization, probabilistic mechanics, structural assessment and retrofitting as wells as artificial intelligence methods in engineering. He has over 150 publications (journal papers, conference papers, book chapters, edited books and journal special issues and conference proceedings. He has organized several conferences and minisymposia. He has participated in many research (Greek and EU) projects as researcher and/or coordinator. Dr Tsompanakis has excellent leadership, interpersonal and negotiating skills and many cooperations with other scientific groups in Greece, USA, UK, Italy, Germany, Serbia, etc. He is reviewer in many archival scientific engineering journals and member of the Editorial Board in several scientific journals. He is the Technical Editor of Structure and Infrastructure Engineering (SIE) Journal, Taylor&Francis Publ. He is the co-editor of the first two volumes in the same Taylor & Francis book series: “Structures & Infrastructures Book Series”, Book Series Editor Dan M. Frangopol.

    "I can most highly recommend this book. The collection of chapters provides an overview of the present thinking and state-of art developments into the field of maintenance and safety of aging infrastructure. The collection of the chapters is in the authors opinion very useful for both academics and practicing engineers. Every academic and practicing engineer concerned with the lifecycle of structures should have this book in his/her library and daily use."

    Dr.-Ing. Alfred Strauss, Department of Civil Engineering and Natural Hazards, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.