Projects are performed by people for people, with the key determinants of success being the relationships between project teams and project stakeholders. This web of relationships will either enable or obstruct the flow of information between people and, as a consequence, will largely determine project success or failure.
Making Projects Work: Effective Stakeholder and Communication Management provides a framework for understanding and managing the factors required for achieving successful project and program outcomes. It presents guidelines to help readers develop an understanding of governance and its connection to strategy as the starting point for deciding what work needs to be done.
- Introduces the idea of an organization’s communication ecosystem where information flows freely within and among all organizational layers
- Explores the importance of the relationships with the project’s stakeholder community as keys to project success
- Describes the theoretical underpinnings of leadership
- Provides detailed analysis of the different types of project stakeholders
- Supplies guidance on developing the appropriate messages to meet project and stakeholder needs
The book describes how to craft appropriate communication strategies for developing and maintaining successful relationships with stakeholders. It highlights the strengths and weaknesses of existing project controls and outlines effective communication techniques for managing expectations and acquiring the support required to deliver successful projects on time and under budget.
Table of Contents
Making Projects Work
The Communication Ecosystem
Strategic Management of Projects (Project Governance)
What Should the Boundaries of the Project Be?
Communication Influences Project Outcomes
The Reality Check
The Project Manager as Superhero: Represents the Hero Component of Project Management Culture
The Schedule and the Gantt Chart Are Truth: Represents the Symbol Component of Project Management Culture
Project Reports Are Clear Representations of Project Progress: Represents the Rituals Component of Project Management Culture
Operating within the Power Relationships of the Organization Is Manipulation: Represents the Value Component of Project Management Culture
Risk Management Is a Rational Process: Represents the Value Component of Project Management Culture
Stakeholders and Organizational Value
What Is a Stakeholder?
A Stakeholder Has a Stake
Contribution of Knowledge (or Experience)
Contribution of Support
Implications for Successful Stakeholder Engagement in Projects
Approaches to Stakeholder Relationships
Dimension 1: Political Perspectives of Stakeholders
Dimension 2: Purpose and Objectives of Considering Stakeholders
Dimension 3: Value of Considering Stakeholders
Dimension 4: Consideration of the Stakeholder Intervention level
Dimension 5: Consideration of the Degree of Stakeholder Enforcement
Organization Activities and Stakeholder Communities
How Many Stakeholders?
Analyzing the Stakeholder Community with the Stakeholder Circle
Managing Stakeholder Relationships
Step 1: Identify
Step 2: Prioritize: How to Understand Who Is Important
The Prioritization Process
Step 3: Visualization: Presentation of Complex Data
Step 4: Engage
Application of Attitude in Organizations Today
Examples of Engagement Profiles
Step 5: Monitor the Effectiveness of the Communication
The Value of Effective Stakeholder Engagement
Zero Cost of Quality
Value to the Organization
On Time/On Budget Delivery
Value to Stakeholders
Value to the Project or the Organization
Value to the Team
Focus on Leadership: Theories for Leading and Managing
What Is a Team?
A History of Management
Henri Fayol: Functions of Management
Scientific Management (Frederick Taylor)
The Hawthorne Experiments and Their Findings
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Herzberg’s Hygiene Theory
McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
Theories of Leadership
The Leadership of Ernest Shackleton
Goleman’s Leadership Styles
Vroom’s Expectancy Theory and Decision Model
Define the Problem
The Decision-Making Process: Who Should Be Involved?
How Can We Minimize the Effect of Personal Preference and Bias?
Alternatives: How Do You Prioritize Alternatives?
Implement the Solution and Review the Effectiveness of the Implementation
Focus on Downwards: The Practicalities of Leading the Project Team
The Nature of Teams
Team Formation and Construction
The Leaders’ Role in Successful Agile Projects
Theories of Team Development
Tuckman’s Model of Team Formation
How This Model Is Useful
How Good Is This Model?
Swift Trust Works When
The Tool Kit of a Leader
Counteracting Social Loafing
Delegation and Motivation
The Benefits of Delegation
Giving Negative Feedback
Preparing to Give Feedback
Blake and Mouton’s Approach
Interventions to Minimize Potential Conflict
Focus on Managing Upwards
The Managers’ Dilemma
Making the Transition to the Executive Level
Five Levels of Leadership
Three Important Rules for Sponsor Engagement
Power within Organizations
Dealing with Difficult Stakeholders
Helping the Sponsor Help You (and Your Project)
When the Sponsor Leaves the Project
Managing Relations with Senior Stakeholders
Dealing with Difficult Bosses
The Incompetent Boss
Gives Unclear Instruction, Is Disorganized
Blames Others or Takes Undue Credit
Acts Like a Tyrant or a "Game Player" Saying No
Focus on Sidewards and Outwards Stakeholders
Sidewards and Outwards Stakeholders
Different Types of Networks
Degrees of Separation
The Power of Networks
Emotions and Networks
Applying the Theories of Networks to Managing the Expectations of Stakeholders
Using Social Media Effectively in Projects
LinkedIn and Social Distance
Finding Influence Networks around the Project
Traps in Building Networks
Avoiding the Traps
What Is Negotiation?
Four Concepts of Negotiation
BATNA: Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement
ZOPA: Zone of Possible Agreement
Value Creation through Trade-offs
The Negotiation Process
Culture and Other Factors that Influence Communication
Perception and "Reality"
The Role of the Brain
The Brain Hardwires Everything It Can
"You Create Your Own Reality"
How Do We Know These Things?
Dimensions of Culture
The Social Context of Gender
Discourse: The Sharing of Information
Planning and Control
Theories of Motivation
Types of Stakeholder Communication
What Is Communication?
Aspects of Successful Communication: The Power of Words
Defining the Purpose
Understanding the Recipient of the Communication
Monitoring Implementation and Measuring Effectiveness
Preparing for Effective Communication
The Message: Format and Content
In Conclusion: Putting It All Together
Dr Lynda Bourne FAIM, FACS, PMP is a senior management consultant, professional speaker, trainer, and award-winning project manager with 30+ years’ professional industry experience. She is the CEO and managing director of Stakeholder Management Pty Ltd focusing on the delivery of stakeholder management and other project and organization related consultancy, mentoring, and training for clients worldwide. Her career has combined practical project experience with business management roles and academic research to deliver successful projects that meet stakeholders’ expectations.
She is a member of the international faculty at EAN University, Columbia, teaching in the Masters of Project Management course. She is also visiting international professor in the master’s program at the Faculty of Exact Sciences and Innovative Technologies, Sholokhov Moscow State. The modules Lynda teaches are focused on stakeholder engagement, communication, and leadership.
Dr Bourne is a Fellow of the Australian Institute of Management and a Fellow of the Australian Computer Society. She was awarded PMI Australia’s "Project Manager of the Year," and was included in PMI’s inaugural list of "25 Influential Women in Project Management."
Lynda is a recognised international author, seminar leader, and speaker on the topic of stakeholder engagement and the stakeholder circle visualization tool; her book Stakeholder Relationship Management: A Maturity Model for Organisational Implementation (Gower, 2009, 2011) defines the SRMM® model for stakeholder relationship management maturity.
She has presented at conferences and seminars in Europe, Russia, Asia, Australasia, South America, and the Middle East to audiences in the IT, construction, defence, and mining industries and has been key speaker on stakeholder engagement practices at meetings, workshops, and conferences. She edited the book Advising Upwards (Gower, 2011) containing practical advice for those seeking to influence their senior stakeholders. She presents workshops regularly in the government sector on stakeholder engagement and project governance.