Making Sense of Intellectual Capital  book cover
1st Edition

Making Sense of Intellectual Capital

ISBN 9780750677745
Published December 17, 2003 by Routledge
456 Pages

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Book Description

Peter Drucker has introduced us all to the knowledge era, where knowledge is the primary resource and intangibles (intellectual capital resources and assets) are now largely recognized as the most important sources of organizations' competitive advantage. With the recognition of the importance of Intangibles comes the problem of how to properly identify them and assign them a value within the corporation. This is an area of concern in 5 fields: 1) accounting and financial reporting, 2) performance measurement and management, 3) valuation in the finance field, 4) the Human Resources field in terms of management, strategy, and planning, and 5) Intellectual Capital. Over the past eight years, over 25 methods have been proposed for the valuation of intangibles coming out of these 5 fields.

In this book, Andriessen evaluates 25 existing methods of intangible valuation according to highly developed criteria. In performing his evaluations, Andriessen synthesizes the state of the art research from these fields based on extensive research. He then presents his own method for valuing intangibles, which he began developing and testing as a Senior Manager at KPMG Knowledge Advisory Services in The Netherlands. He relates six case studies in which this method was tested in actual companies, carefully reviews the results of his tests, and then concludes by offering a new and improved method for valuing intangibles in his Weightless Wealth Toolkit, a complete step-by-step process for identifying, valuing, and managing Intangibles to help managers operate successfully in the Intangible Economy.

Table of Contents

Table of contents
Preface and Acknowledgements xix
1. Objective: Valuation and Measurement in the Intangible Economy
1.1 Introduction
The Intangible perspective
The transformation of the economy
Seven characteristics of the Intangible Economy
Drivers of the Intangible Economy
The Intellectual Capital community
Valuation and measurement of intangibles
Four ways to determine value
Objective and problem
My objectives
Problem to tackle
Practicing management research as a design science
Using the developing multiple case study
Structure of the book
2. Methodology: The Science of Designing Practical Methods
Making sense of the social world
Distinctions make sense
The world doesn't speak
We know according to the way we are and the way we feel
The social world does not sit still
Social science
Anything goes?
How to test an empirical proposition
How to test a practical proposition
Bringing the two together
Science follows its own rules
Management research
The subject of management research
The scientific nature of management research
My study
The reflective cycle used in this study
Difficulties in applying the reflective cycle
The use of reconstructed logic
3. Legacy: Methods for the Valuation and Measurement of Intangibles
What: Distinctions & definitions
Intellectual Capital
Intangible Assets
Human Resources and Human Assets
Why: Problems & consequences
Improving internal management
Improving external reporting
Statutory and transactional issues
How: Solutions & results
Financial valuation methods
Value measurement methods
Value assessment methods
Measurement methods
Implications for the requirements of a new method
4. Design: Draft of a New Method
Request for proposals
Iteration 1
Iteration 2
Iteration 3
Iteration 4
Problem definition
5. Test: Trying Out the New Method
Bank Ltd
Context & problem definition
Specific requirements & design
Implementation & results
Additions to the design
Reporting to the client
Evaluation & modifications
Electro Ltd.
Context & problem definition
Specific requirements & design
Implementation & results
Reporting to the client
Evaluation & modifications
Automotive Ltd.
Context and problem definition
Specific requirements & design
Implementation & results
Evaluation & modifications
Logistic Services BU
Context & problem definition
Specific requirements & design
Implementation & results
Reporting to the client
Evaluation & modifications
Professional Services LLP
Context & problem definition
Specific requirements & design
Implementation & results
Reporting to the client
Evaluation & modifications
Consulting Dept.
Context & problem definition
Special requirements & design
Implementation & results
Reporting to the client
Evaluation & modifications
Result of the tests
The method and its requirements
The success of the method
6. Lessons Learned: Contributions to Intellectual Capital Research
Lessons about the method
The application domain of the method
The strengths and mechanisms of the method
The weaknesses of the method
Final modifications to the method
Lessons about valuing intangible resources
Valuing intangibles requires values
Valuing intangibles requires a beholder
Valuing intangible resources does not require money
Valuing intangibles requires identification and demarcation
Valuing intangibles requires diagnosis
Valuing intangibles requires methods
Lessons about practicing IC research as a design science
Reconciling the rigor-relevance dilemma in IC research
Determining the effect of the implementation
Determining the contribution of the method
The analyst versus the researcher
Implications for future IC research
Valuing and improving problem definitions
Explaining and improving success-rate
Explaining and improving the impact of numbers
Appendix A. Overview of 25 Valuation and Measurement Methods
A.1 Balanced Scorecard (Kaplan & Norton)
A.2 Calculated Intangible Value
A.3 Citation-Weighted Patents
A.4 Economic Value Added (Stewart)
A.5 Holistic Value Approach HVA (Roos)
A.6 Human Resource Accounting
A.7 IC Audit (Brooking)
A.8 IC-Index (Roos)
A.9 Inclusive Value Methodology™ (M'Pherson)
A.10 Intangible Asset Monitor (Sveiby)
A.11 Intangibles Scoreboard (Lev)
A.12 Intellectual Capital Benchmarking System (Viedma)
A.13 Intellectual Capital dynamic Value (Bounfour)
A.14 Intellectual Capital Statement (Mouritsen et al.)
A.15 iValuing factor (Standfield)
A.16 Konrad Group
A.17 Market-to-book ratio
A.18 Options Approach
A.19 Skandia Navigator (Edvinsson)
A.20 Sullivan's Work
A.21 Technology Factor (Khoury)
A.22 Tobin's q (Tobin)
A.23 Valuation approaches
A.24 Value Added Intellectual Coefficient VAIC™(Pulic)
A.25 Value Chain Scoreboard (Lev)
Appendix B. Weightless Wealth Toolkit
B.1 How to Use the Toolkit
B.2 Phase One: Do Intake
B.3 Phase Two: Identify Intangible Resources
B.4 Phase Three: Carry out Value Assessment
B.5 Phase Four: Perform Financial Valuation
B.6 Phase Five: Develop Management Agenda
B.7 Phase Six: Report Value Dashboard
Glossary of Terms
About the Author

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