8th Edition

# Making Sense of Statistics A Conceptual Overview

By Deborah M. Oh, Fred Pyrczak Copyright 2023
284 Pages 21 B/W Illustrations
by Routledge

284 Pages 21 B/W Illustrations
by Routledge

284 Pages 21 B/W Illustrations
by Routledge

Also available as eBook on:

Making Sense of Statistics, Eighth Edition, is the ideal introduction to the concepts of descriptive and inferential statistics for students undertaking their first research project. It presents each statistical concept in a series of short steps, then uses worked examples and exercises to enable students to apply their own learning.

It focuses on presenting the “why,” as well as the “how” of statistical concepts, rather than computations and formulas. As such, it is suitable for students from all disciplines regardless of mathematical background. Only statistical techniques that are almost universally included in introductory statistics courses, and widely reported in journals, have been included.

This conceptual book is useful for all study levels, from undergraduate to doctoral level across disciplines. Once students understand and feel comfortable with the statistics presented in this book, they should find it easy to master additional statistical concepts.

New to the Eighth Edition

• Reorganization of chapters to allow better progress in conceptual understanding
• Additional discussions on program evaluation, displays of outcomes, and examples
• Chapter objectives at the beginning of each chapter are listed with clear learning objectives for the reader
• Expanded appendices include a reference to common computational formulas and examples
• A glossary of key terms has been updated to function as a useful vocabulary list for use in a first course in statistics
• Updated online resources, including a basic math review and answers, PowerPoint slides, and a test bank of questions

Introduction: What is Research?;  Part A: The Research Context  1. The Empirical Approach to Knowledge  2. Types of Empirical Research  3. Scales of Measurement  4. Descriptive, Correlational, and Inferential Statistics;  Part B: Sampling  5. Introduction to Sampling  6. Variations on Random Sampling  7. Sample Size  8. Standard Error of Mean and Central Limit Theorem;  Part C: Descriptive Statistics  9. Frequencies, Percentages, and Proportions  10. Shapes of Distributions  11. The Mean: An Average  12. Mean, Median, and Mode  13. Range and Interquartile Range  14. Standard Deviation  15. Z Score;  Part D: Correlational Statistics  16. Correlation  17. Pearson r  18. Scattergram  19. Coefficient of Determination  20. Multiple Correlation;  Part E: Inferential Statistics  21. Introduction to Null Hypothesis  22. Decisions About the Null Hypothesis  23. Limits of Significance Testing and Practical Implications;  Part F: Means Comparison  24. Introduction to the t Test  25. Independent Samples t Test  26. Dependent Samples t Test  27. One Sample t Test  28. Reporting the Results of t Tests: Display of Outcomes  29. One-Way ANOVA  30. Two-Way ANOVA;  Part G: Predictive Significance  31. Chi-Square  32. Effect Size  33. Simple and Multiple Linear Regressions;  Appendix A. Computations  Appendix B. Notes on Interpreting Pearson r and Linear Regression  Appendix C. Table of Random Numbers

### Biography

Deborah Mikyo Oh has been Professor in Research Methods and Statistics at California State University, Los Angeles, USA, since 1998. She earned her PhD from Columbia University, New York, USA, and teaches statistics to a diverse student population at undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral levels.