Making Your Data Center Energy Efficient: 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Making Your Data Center Energy Efficient

1st Edition

By Gilbert Held

Auerbach Publications

286 pages | 44 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2011-09-12
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Detailing powerful methods for reducing the energy costs associated with operating a data center, Making Your Data Center Energy Efficient examines both equipment and building facilities. It reviews the rationale for conserving energy and demonstrates how conservation and careful equipment selection can lead to significant improvements to your bottom line. For those not well-versed in financial or energy terms, the first two chapters provide a detailed discussion of the terms associated with different types of energy, as well as how to compute the return on investment for energy conservation efforts.

The text includes tables of monthly expenses associated with operating equipment that will help you convert problems into simple table lookup processes. Among the money-saving topics discussed, it considers:

  • How to minimize the energy consumption of a wide range of devices
  • A little-understood topic that can make a big impact on energy costs—general heating and cooling
  • Techniques required to effectively monitor different types of meters
  • Phantom energy usage and methods for minimizing its cost to your organization

Recognizing that most readers may not have direct control over the selection of a furnace or hot water heater, the book provides you with the ability to recognize the efficiencies and inefficiencies of various types of devices, so you can provide input into the decision-making process. From replacing lighting to consolidation and virtualization, it provides you with the well-rounded understanding needed to properly manage all aspects of the energy consumed in your data center.

Table of Contents

Rationale for Energy Conservation and Its Financial Implications

The Cost of Energy

Energy and Power

Units of Power

BTUs and Horsepower

Comparing Energy

Oil, Gas, and Electric Costs

The Cost of Oil

The Cost of Natural Gas

The Cost of Electricity

Financial Metrics

The Return on Investment (ROI)

ROI Analysis

What Is Time Value?

Future Value Basics

Future Value Interest Factors

Present Value Basics


Payment Frequency

Types of Annuities

Determining the Future Value of an Ordinary Annuity

Present Value of an Annuity

Considering Monthly Cash Flows

Annuity Due

Annuity Notations

Payback Period

Discounted Cash Flow

Weighted Average Cost of Capital

Internal Rate of Return

Computing the IRR

Using Excel

NPV Functions in Excel

ROI Functions in Excel

IRR Summary


Understanding Electrical Terms

Understanding Electricity

Atoms and Electrons

Electric Generators


Circuit Measurements


Electrical Power

Direct Current versus Alternating Current

Direct Current (DC)

The Power Supply

Power Supply Types



Power Rating

Meters to Consider

AC Measurements to Consider


Power Factor (PF)

Importance of the Power Factor


Electricity Distribution

The Power Plant


Types of Transformers

Transformer Wiring

Service Methods

Single Phase versus Three Phase

The Service Panel

Types of Service Panels


Inside the Service Panel

Building Service Panel


Types of Circuits

Individual Circuits

Plugs and Sockets

Office Plugs and Sockets


Standby Generators

Selecting a Generator

General Heating and Cooling Considerations

Climate Control Systems


Heating Systems

Forced-Air Systems



Radiant Heating Systems

Heat Pumps

SEER and HSPF Ratings

Types of Heat Pumps

Hybrid Heat Pump

Solar-Assisted Heat Pump

Dual Fuel Heat Pump

Air-Source Heat Pump

Geothermal Heat Pumps

Electric Resistance Heating

Types of Electric Resistance Heaters


Steam Heating

Hot Water Radiators

Hot Water Heaters

Types of Water Heaters

Conventional Tank Storage Water Heaters

Tankless Water Heaters

Indirect Water Heaters

Cooling Systems

Central Air Conditioners

Types of Central Air Conditioners


Cost Comparison

Other Features to Consider

Heat Pump Cooling


Use in Air-Conditioning

Types of Chillers


Factors to Consider

Rapid Restart Capability

Operating Multiple Chillers

Checking the Refrigerant Line

Optimize Cooling during Cold Weather

Examine Ductworks

Examining Air Filters

Heating and Cooling Items to Consider

Considering the Long Term

Reading and Understanding Your Electric, Gas, and Water Meters

The Electric Meter

Electric Meter Categories

Examining the Electric Meter

Reading an Electric Meter

Load Meters

Recording Data


Digital "Smart" Meters

Smart Meters and the Smart Grid

Reading the Smart Meter Display

Smart Meter Problems


Possible Causes of Billing Inaccuracies

Why Rates Matter

The Natural Gas Meter

Types of Gas Meters

Meter Reading

Estimating the Monthly Gas Bill

The Water Meter

Locate Your Meter

Water Bills

Abnormalities in the Water Bill

Smart Water Meters

Data Center Equipment Energy Consumption

Operational Modes to Consider

Power Loads

Commonsense Items to Consider

Obtain Smart Power Strips

Check Cell Phone Charger Ratings

Unplug Rarely Used Devices

Ensure Monitors Are Turned Off When Not Used

Turn Off or Place Computers in a Standby Mode

Favor Energy Star Equipment

General Cost Computations

Device Consumption

Varying the Cost per kWh


Computer Memory

Rack Pack Considerations

Communications Equipment

Cisco 3750 Series

Cisco StackPower and EnergyWise Technology

Other Techniques to Reduce Energy Consumption

Fan Speed Considerations

Rack Placement and Cooling Considerations

Available Calculators

Minimizing Computer Energy Consumption

Sleep Mode Considerations

Power Options

Accessing Power Options

Editing a Power Plan

CPU States

Advanced Settings

Processor Power Management


Multimedia Settings

Computer Power Efficiency

Accessing the Command Prompt

Examining an Energy Report


Enabling Wake-on-LAN in Windows

Wake-on-LAN Capabilities


Wireless Network Use

Delivery Confirmation

Security Issues

Specific Computer Linkage

Making Your Data Center Energy Efficient

Techniques to Consider

Finding Energy Loss

Replacing Monitors

Waiting Area Display

Upgrading the Operating System

Purchase Energy Star Compliant Products

Consolidation and Virtualization


Consider Cloud Computing

Consider Desktop and Server Power Management


Consider Processor Efficiency

Consider Data Storage Consolidation

Examine IT Hardware Utilization

Consider Higher Voltage Power Distribution

Utilize Wireless Humidity and Temperature


Minimize Phantom Energy Loss

Use Energy-Efficient Motors

Examine Airflow

Reduce Air Handler Operations When Not Necessary

Controlling the Power Factor

Use Caulking and Weather-Stripping to Block

Air Leaks

Consider a Chargeback Policy That Includes Energy Cost

Consider Increases in Electricity Cost

Water Considerations

Examine Water Heater Settings

Examine Water Usage

Replacing Lighting


Watts as a Measurement Tool

Lumens per Watt and Lux

Determining Watt Dissipation

Luminous Energy


Lighting Efficiency

Color Temperature

Representative Lighting Color Temperature

Comparing Lighting

Building Management Areas to Consider

Consider Adding Insulation

How Insulation Works

Types of Insulation

Rating Insulation

Changing the Building Roof Color

Use Reusable Filters

Consider Electric Vehicles


About the Author

Gilbert Held is currently with 4 Degrees Consulting.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS / Production & Operations Management
COMPUTERS / Information Technology
COMPUTERS / Networking / General