First published in 1998, readers of this volume will get a good overview of research into managerial work. They will learn about: what the researchers have studied; what methods have been used and the criticisms of the limitations of individual methods; the different concepts that have been developed; what has been learnt about managerial work and behaviour from these studies over the years; how this field of study has developed; the main criticisms made of the research; suggestions for future research and future developments.
Studies of managerial work have a long history: the first major work was by Sune Carlson in Sweden in 1951 and studies have continued to the present day, mainly in the USA and the UK. The early studies sought to find out what managers actually did, as distinct from the generalized theories of the nature of managerial work. They were part of the new interest of social scientists in finding out what actually happened in organizations in opposition to the general theories that prevailed then.
Articles cannot give a complete picture of the field studies that have been such a notable feature of this branch of research, because Carlson’s study, like many of the later ones, was published only as a book. However, they provide all the information that students and researchers need to understand the aim, methods and approaches used by researchers so far and a good guide to the varied possibilities for developing this area of study.
Part I. Field Study Reports. 1. Tom Burns (1954), ‘The Directions of Activity and Communication in a Departmental Executive Group’, Human Relations, 7, pp. 73-97. 2. Norman H. Martin (1956), Differential Decisions in the Management of an Industrial Plant’, Journal of Business, 29, pp. 249-60. 3. Tom Burns (1957), ‘Management in Action’, Operational Research Quarterly, 8, pp. 45-60. 4. J.H. Horne and Tom Lupton (1965), ‘The Work Activities of "Middle" Managers – An Exploratory Study’, Journal of Management Studies, 2, pp. 14-33. 5. D.L. Marples (1968), ‘Roles in a Manufacturing Organization’, Journal of Management Studies, 5, pp. 183-204. 6. Henry Mintzberg (1971), ‘Managerial Work: Analysis from Observation’, Management Science, 18, pp. B97-B110. 7. John Child and Tony Ellis (1973), ‘Predictors of Variation in Managerial Roles’, Human Relations, 26, pp. 227-50. 8. John P. Kotter (1982), ‘What Effective General Managers Really Do’, Harvard Business Review, 60, pp. 156-67. 9. Jane Hannaway (1985), ‘Managerial Behavior, Uncertainty and Hierarchy: A Prelude to a Synthesis’, Human Relations, 38, pp. 1085-1100. 10. Fred Luthans, Stuart A. Rosenkrantz and Harry W. Hennessey (1985), ‘What Do Successful Managers Really Do? An Observation Study of Managerial Activities, Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 21, pp. 255-70. Part II. Methodology, Concepts and Critiques. 11. Rosemary Stewart (1965), ‘The Use of Diaries to Study Managers’ Jobs’, Journal of Management Studies, 2, pp. 228-35. 12. D.L. Marples (1967), ‘Studies of Managers – A Fresh Start?’, Journal of Management Studies, 4, pp. 282-99. 13. Henry Mintzberg (1970), ‘Structured Observation as a Method to Study Managerial Work’, Journal of Management Studies, 7, pp. 87-104. 14. Neil Snyder and William F. Glueck (1980), ‘How Managers Plan – The Analysis of Managers’ Activities’, Long Range Planning, 13, pp. 70-76. 15. Rosemary Stewart (1982), ‘A Model for Understanding Managerial Jobs and Behavior’, Academy of Management Review, 7, pp. 7-13. 16. Mark J. Martinko and William L. Gardner (1985), ‘Beyond Structured Observation: Methodological Issues and New Directions’, Academy of Management Review, 10, pp. 676-95. 17. Colin P. Hales (1986), ‘What Do Managers Do? A Critical Review of the Evidence’, Journal of Management Studies, 23, pp. 88-115. 18. Stephen J. Carroll and Dennis J. Gillen (1987), ‘Are the Classical Management Functions Useful in Describing Managerial Work?’, Academy of Management Review, 12, pp. 38-51. 19. Hugh Willmott (1987), ‘Studying Managerial Work: A Critique and a Proposal’, Journal of Management Studies, 24, pp. 249-70. 20. Rosemary Stewart (1989), ‘Studies of Managerial Jobs and Behaviour: The Ways Forward’, Journal of Management Studies, 26, pp. 1-10. 21. Richard Whitley (1989), ‘On the Nature of Managerial Tasks and Skills: Their Distinguishing Characteristics and Organization’, Journal of Management Studies, 26, pp. 209-24. 22. Henry Mintzberg (1991), ‘Managerial Work: Forty Years Later’, in Sune Carlson, Executive Behaviour: Reprinted with Contributions by Henry Mintzberg and Rosemary Stewart, Uppsala, Sweden: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, pp. 97-120. 23. Nanette Fondas and Rosemary Stewart (1994), ‘Enactment in Managerial Jobs: A Role Analysis’, Journal of Management Studies, 31, pp. 83-103.
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