1st Edition

Managing Basin Interdependencies in a Heterogeneous, Highly Utilized and Data Scarce River Basin in Semi-Arid Africa The Case of the Pangani River Basin, Eastern Africa

By Jeremiah Kipkulei Kiptala Copyright 2017
    196 Pages
    by CRC Press

    196 Pages
    by CRC Press

    Continue Shopping

    For integrated water resources management both blue and green water resources in a river basin and their spatial and temporal distribution have to be considered. This is because green and blue water uses are interdependent. In sub-Saharan Africa, the upper landscapes are often dominated by rainfed and supplementary irrigated agriculture that rely on green water resources. Downstream, most blue water uses are confined to the river channels, mainly for hydropower and the environment.

    Over time and due to population growth and increased demands for food and energy, water use of both green and blue water has increased. This book provides a quantitative assessment of green-blue water use and their interactions. The book makes a novel contribution by developing a hydrological model that can quantify not only green but also blue water use by many smallholder farmers scattered throughout the landscape.

    The book provides an innovative framework for mapping ecological productivity where gross returns from water consumed in agricultural and natural vegetation are quantified. The book provides a multi-objective optimization analysis involving green and blue water users, including the environment. The book also assesses the uncertainty levels of using remote sensing data in water resource management at river basin scale.

    Chapter 1 Introduction
    1.1 Water management issues and challenges
    1.2 Research objectives
    1.3 Structure of the thesis

    Chapter 2 Study Area
    2.1 Location
    2.2 Climate
    2.3 Socio-economic activities

    Chapter 3 Land use and land cover classification
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 Materials and methods
    3.2.1 Crop calendar
    3.2.2 Pre-processing of the MODIS datasets
    3.2.3 Unsupervised and supervised classification
    3.2.4 Calibration and Validation
    3.3 Results and discussion
    3.3.1 Land surface phenology
    3.3.2 Ground truthing
    3.3.3 Validation with local datasets
    3.3.4 Land suitability to LULC types
    3.4 Conclusion

    Chapter 4 Mapping evapotranspiration using MODIS and SEBAL
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 Materials and Methods
    4.2.1 Datasets
    4.2.2 Surface Energy Balance Algorithm of Land (SEBAL) algorithm
    4.2.3 MODIS 16 ET Algorithm
    4.2.4 In-situ ET assessment methods
    4.2.5 Uncertainty assessment in SEBAL ET estimates
    4.3 Results and Discussions
    4.3.1 Actual Evapotranspiration
    4.3.2 Model performance
    4.3.3 Crop coefficient, Kc for the main crops
    4.3.4 Spatio-temporal pattern of water use and catchment water balance
    4.4 Conclusion

    Chapter 5 Modelling stream flow using STREAM model
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 Materials and methods
    5.2.1 Datasets
    5.2.2 Model development
    5.2.3 Model configuration
    5.2.4 Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis
    5.2.5 Model performance
    5.2.6 Scenario development
    5.3 Results and discussion
    5.3.1 Calibration and validation results
    5.3.2 Sensitivity analysis
    5.3.3 Model interpretation
    5.3.4 Future water management scenario using modified STREAM model
    5.4 Conclusions

    Chapter 6 Water Productivity
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Materials and Methods
    6.2.1 Actual evapotranspiration
    6.2.2 Biomass production
    6.2.3 Crop yield
    6.2.4 Carbon sequestration
    6.2.5 Economic Water Productivity
    6.2.6 Additional datasets
    6.2.7 Calibration and validation
    6.2.8 Uncertainty analysis of biomass production
    6.3 Results and Discussions
    6.3.1 Biomass production
    6.3.2 Uncertainty assessment for biomass production
    6.3.3 Water Yield
    6.3.4 Water Productivity
    6.4 Discussion and Conclusion

    Chapter 7 Multi-objective analysis of green-blue water
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Pangani River system
    7.3 Materials and Methods
    7.3.1 STREAM hydrological model
    7.3.2 Hydro-Economic Modelling Approach
    7.3.3 Multi-objective problem formulation for the Pangani hydro-system
    7.4 Results and Discussions
    7.4.1 Model validation
    7.4.2 Problem formulation cases for Lower Pangani hydro-system
    7.4.3 Problem formulation for green and blue water use
    |7.5 Conclusion

    Chapter 8 Conclusions
    8.1 Academic innovation
    8.1.1 Water balance assessment using RS data
    8.1.2 Modelling of green-blue water interaction and quantifying blue water use with a modified STREAM model
    8.1.3 Mapping ecological production and gross returns from water consumed in agricultural and natural landscapes
    8.1.4 Integrated hydro-economic modelling of green-blue water use
    8.2 Uncertainty of RS data for Water Resource Planning
    8.3 River basin management in the Pangani Basin
    8.4 Lessons for other river basins


    Jeremiah Kipkulei Kiptala is a lecturer of water resources engineering at the Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya. He has a bachelor degree in Civil Engineering from the University of Nairobi, Kenya and a Master of Science in Water Management from UNESCO-IHE, the Netherlands. He is a professional civil engineer with the Engineers Board of Kenya and a corporate member of the Institute of Engineers of Kenya. For his PhD, Jeremiah conducted research on managing basin interdependencies in the Pangani River basin, Eastern Africa. His research interests include hydrological and river system modeling, multi-objective optimization, water valuation and ecosystem services valuation.