Managing Basin Interdependencies in a Heterogeneous, Highly Utilized and Data Scarce River Basin in Semi-Arid Africa: The Case of the Pangani River Basin, Eastern Africa, 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Managing Basin Interdependencies in a Heterogeneous, Highly Utilized and Data Scarce River Basin in Semi-Arid Africa

The Case of the Pangani River Basin, Eastern Africa, 1st Edition

By Jeremiah Kipkulei Kiptala

CRC Press

176 pages

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Description

For integrated water resources management both blue and green water resources in a river basin and their spatial and temporal distribution have to be considered. This is because green and blue water uses are interdependent. In sub-Saharan Africa, the upper landscapes are often dominated by rainfed and supplementary irrigated agriculture that rely on green water resources. Downstream, most blue water uses are confined to the river channels, mainly for hydropower and the environment.

Over time and due to population growth and increased demands for food and energy, water use of both green and blue water has increased. This book provides a quantitative assessment of green-blue water use and their interactions. The book makes a novel contribution by developing a hydrological model that can quantify not only green but also blue water use by many smallholder farmers scattered throughout the landscape.

The book provides an innovative framework for mapping ecological productivity where gross returns from water consumed in agricultural and natural vegetation are quantified. The book provides a multi-objective optimization analysis involving green and blue water users, including the environment. The book also assesses the uncertainty levels of using remote sensing data in water resource management at river basin scale.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 Water management issues and challenges

1.2 Research objectives

1.3 Structure of the thesis

Chapter 2 Study Area

2.1 Location

2.2 Climate

2.3 Socio-economic activities

Chapter 3 Land use and land cover classification

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Materials and methods

3.2.1 Crop calendar

3.2.2 Pre-processing of the MODIS datasets

3.2.3 Unsupervised and supervised classification

3.2.4 Calibration and Validation

3.3 Results and discussion

3.3.1 Land surface phenology

3.3.2 Ground truthing

3.3.3 Validation with local datasets

3.3.4 Land suitability to LULC types

3.4 Conclusion

Chapter 4 Mapping evapotranspiration using MODIS and SEBAL

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Materials and Methods

4.2.1 Datasets

4.2.2 Surface Energy Balance Algorithm of Land (SEBAL) algorithm

4.2.3 MODIS 16 ET Algorithm

4.2.4 In-situ ET assessment methods

4.2.5 Uncertainty assessment in SEBAL ET estimates

4.3 Results and Discussions

4.3.1 Actual Evapotranspiration

4.3.2 Model performance

4.3.3 Crop coefficient, Kc for the main crops

4.3.4 Spatio-temporal pattern of water use and catchment water balance

4.4 Conclusion

Chapter 5 Modelling stream flow using STREAM model

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Materials and methods

5.2.1 Datasets

5.2.2 Model development

5.2.3 Model configuration

5.2.4 Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis

5.2.5 Model performance

5.2.6 Scenario development

5.3 Results and discussion

5.3.1 Calibration and validation results

5.3.2 Sensitivity analysis

5.3.3 Model interpretation

5.3.4 Future water management scenario using modified STREAM model

5.4 Conclusions

Chapter 6 Water Productivity

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Materials and Methods

6.2.1 Actual evapotranspiration

6.2.2 Biomass production

6.2.3 Crop yield

6.2.4 Carbon sequestration

6.2.5 Economic Water Productivity

6.2.6 Additional datasets

6.2.7 Calibration and validation

6.2.8 Uncertainty analysis of biomass production

6.3 Results and Discussions

6.3.1 Biomass production

6.3.2 Uncertainty assessment for biomass production

6.3.3 Water Yield

6.3.4 Water Productivity

6.4 Discussion and Conclusion

Chapter 7 Multi-objective analysis of green-blue water

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Pangani River system

7.3 Materials and Methods

7.3.1 STREAM hydrological model

7.3.2 Hydro-Economic Modelling Approach

7.3.3 Multi-objective problem formulation for the Pangani hydro-system

7.4 Results and Discussions

7.4.1 Model validation

7.4.2 Problem formulation cases for Lower Pangani hydro-system

7.4.3 Problem formulation for green and blue water use

|7.5 Conclusion

Chapter 8 Conclusions

8.1 Academic innovation

8.1.1 Water balance assessment using RS data

8.1.2 Modelling of green-blue water interaction and quantifying blue water use with a modified STREAM model

8.1.3 Mapping ecological production and gross returns from water consumed in agricultural and natural landscapes

8.1.4 Integrated hydro-economic modelling of green-blue water use

8.2 Uncertainty of RS data for Water Resource Planning

8.3 River basin management in the Pangani Basin

8.4 Lessons for other river basins

About the Author

Jeremiah Kipkulei Kiptala is a lecturer of water resources engineering at the Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya. He has a bachelor degree in Civil Engineering from the University of Nairobi, Kenya and a Master of Science in Water Management from UNESCO-IHE, the Netherlands. He is a professional civil engineer with the Engineers Board of Kenya and a corporate member of the Institute of Engineers of Kenya. For his PhD, Jeremiah conducted research on managing basin interdependencies in the Pangani River basin, Eastern Africa. His research interests include hydrological and river system modeling, multi-objective optimization, water valuation and ecosystem services valuation.

About the Series

IHE Delft PhD Thesis Series

IHE Delft PhD programme leads to a deepening of a field of specialisation. PhD fellows do scientific research, often with conclusions that directly influence their region. At IHE Delft, PhD researchers from around the world participate in problem-focused and solution-oriented research on development issues, resulting in an inspiring research environment. PhD fellows work together with other researchers from many countries dealing with topics related to water and the environment.

PhD research is often carried out in the ‘sandwich’ model. Preparation and final reporting – the first and last portion of the programme – are carried out in Delft, while actual research is done in the fellow’s home country, under co-supervision of a local institute. Regular contacts with the promotor are maintained through visits and long-distance communication. This enables researchers to employ solutions directly to problems in their geographical region.

IHE Delft PhD degrees are awarded jointly with a university. The degrees are highly valued and fully recognised in all parts of the world.

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI026000
SCIENCE / Environmental Science
TEC010030
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / Water Supply