Managing Conflict in Organizations  book cover
5th Edition

Managing Conflict in Organizations




  • Available for pre-order on May 24, 2023. Item will ship after June 14, 2023
ISBN 9781032258201
June 14, 2023 Forthcoming by Routledge
320 Pages 15 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Managing Conflict in Organizations introduces the origins, forms, benefits, and consequences of organizational conflict to students and practitioners and teaches how best to manage conflict to achieve productive outcomes. Conflict has benefits: it may lead to solutions to problems, creativity, and innovation. In contrast, little or no conflict in organizations may lead to stagnation, poor decisions, and ineffectiveness.

This book is a vigorous analysis of the rational application of conflict theory in organizations for organizational behaviour students, as well as practitioners looking to practice constructive conflict management in their work. This second edition has been thoroughly updated to reflect the latest research in the field and explains the effect that research has on practice, with an expanded range of practical examples and cases.

It covers emergent topics such as:

  • Differentials in conflict management styles across generations
  • Technology and its effect on conflict style changes
  • Cross-cultural studies, Diversity and Critical Race Theory

This text is a valuable resource for students, instructors, and researchers in HRM and organizational behaviour, and a practical handbook for practitioners that manage (or manage upward) their colleagues.

Table of Contents

Preface

Chapter 1: Social Conflict Construct

Summary

Contributions from Various Disciplines

Philosophy

Plato and Aristotle

Hobbes and Locke

Hegel and Marx

Dewey

Biological Science

Darwin

Sociology and Psychology

Simmel

Mayo

Parsons

Coser

Functional Outcomes

Dysfunctional Outcomes

Organizational Conflict

The Classical View of Organizational Conflict

Taylor

Fayol

Weber

Follett

Concluding Comments on the Classical View of Organizational Conflict

The Modern View of Organizational Conflict

Chapter 2: Nature of Conflict

Summary

Defining Conflict

Threshold and Grey-Zone Conflicts

Conflict and Competition

Classifying Conflict

Antecedent Conditions

Substantive Conflict

Affective Conflict

Process Conflict

Other Forms of Substantive–Affective Conflict

Transforming Conflict

Masquerading conflict

Goal Conflict

Conflict of Interest

Conflict of Values

Structural or Institutionalized Conflict

Realistic versus Nonrealistic Conflict

Retributive Conflict

Misattributed Conflict

Displaced Conflict

Levels of Analysis

Intrapersonal Conflict

Interpersonal Conflict

Intragroup Conflict

Intergroup Conflict

Styles of Handling Interpersonal Conflict

Model of Two Styles

Model of Three Styles

Model of Four Styles

Model of Five Styles

Integrating Style

Obliging Style

Dominating Style

Avoiding Style

Compromising Style

Integrative and Distributive Dimensions

Problem Solving Strategy

Chapter 3: Organizational Learning and Effectiveness

Summary

Defining Organizational Learning

Although the concept of organizational learning was formally introduced by Simon (1953/1976; see also Argyris, 1976), it has not received much attention in the organizational literature until recently. Organizational learning involves:

    1. Knowledge acquisition,
    2. Knowledge distribution,
    3. Information interpretation, and
    4. Organizational memorization (i.e., preserving information for future access and use).

Types of Learning

Single-Loop Learning

Double-loop Learning

Organizational Effectiveness

Goal Attainment

System Resource

Internal Process

Strategic Constituencies

What is an Appropriate Effectiveness Model?

Measurement of Effectiveness

Characteristics of the Old Paradigm

Individual Defensive Reasoning

Organizational Defensive Routines

Problem Solving Process

Problem Recognition

Problem Sensing

Problem Formulation

Planning for Change

Recommending solutions to problems

Preparing plans for intervention

Implementation

Putting Plans for action

Review of Outcomes and Taking Corrective Actions

Avoiding Type III Errors

Select the Right Stakeholders

Expand your options

Phase problems correctly

Extend the Boundaries of Problems

Think Systemically

Conflict Management in the New Paradigm

Chapter 4: Conflict Management Design

Summary

Nature of Conflict Management

Substantive Conflict

Affective Conflict

Process conflict

Transforming conflict

Masquerading Conflicts

Inverted–U Function

Paradox of Conflict

Conflict Management Styles

Matching Styles with Situations

Integrating style

Obliging Style

Dominating Style

Avoiding Style

Compromising Style

Criteria for Conflict Management

Organizational Learning and Effectiveness

Needs of Stakeholders

Ethics

Conflict Management Strategy

Minimize Conflict

Substantive Conflict

Learn Conflict Management Strategies

Contingency Approach

Conflict Management Process

Diagnosis

Measurement

Analysis

Intervention

Process

Leadership

Leaders as Teachers

Leaders with social intelligence

Situational awareness

Situational response

Cognitive empathy

Social skills

Organizational culture

Structural

Major Research Challenges

Chapter 5: Intrapersonal Conflict

Summary

Types of Intrapersonal Conflict

Approach–Approach Conflict

Approach–Avoidance Conflict

Double Approach–Avoidance Conflict

Avoidance–Avoidance Conflict

Role

Role Conflict

Intrasender Conflict

Intersender Conflict

Interrole Conflict

Intrarole (Person-Role) Conflict

Role Overload and Underload

Role Ambiguity

A Model of Role Conflict and Ambiguity

Consequences of Role Conflict

Managing Intrapersonal Conflict

Diagnosis

Measurement

Analysis

National Norms

Sources

Misassignment and Goal Incongruence

Inappropriate Demand on Capacity

Organization Structure

Supervisory Style

Position

Personality

Intervention

Process

Technique of Role Analysis

Purpose of role

Role perception

Expectations of role occupant

Expectations from role occupant

Role profile

Structural

Job Design

Skill variety

Task identity

Task significance

Autonomy

Feedback

Moderators

Knowledge and skill

Growth need strength

"Context" satisfaction

Chapter 6: Interpersonal Conflict

Summary

Prisoner's Dilemma

A Model of Conflict

Antecedent Conditions

Perceptual and Behavioral Changes

Structure Formation

Decision Process

Conflict Aftermath

Consequences of Interpersonal Conflict

Individual and Group Performance

Individual and Organizational Outcomes

Negotiation

Separate the People from the Problem

Focus on Interests, Not Positions

Invent Options for Mutual Gain

Fixed-pie Assumption

Premature Judgments

Searching for a Single Answer

A Assumes that B is Responsible for Satisfying A’s Interests

Insist on Using Objective Criteria

The BATNA Principle

Hard, Soft, and Principled Negotiating Styles

Managing Interpersonal Conflict

Diagnosis

Measurement

Analysis

Collegiate Norms

National Norms

Sources

Personality

Gender

Face Negotiation Theory

Conflict-Managenent in a Global Setting

Bases of Power

Organizational Climate/Culture

Referent Role

Intervention

Process

Transactional Analysis

Structural, or personality, analysis

Parent ego state

Adult ego state

Child ego state

Transactional analysis proper

Complementary transaction

Uncomplimentary, or crossed transaction

Ulterior transaction

Life positions

Structural

Appeal to Authority

Corporate Ombudsperson

Chaper 7: Intragroup Conflict

Summary

Types of Groups

Formal Groups

Task Group

Types of Task Groups

Interacting group

Coaching group

Counteracting group

Project Groups

Informal Groups

Interest Groups

Friendship Groups

Effects of Intragroup Conflict

Earlier Studies

Contemporary Studies

Substantive conflict

Affective conflict

Process conflict

Transforming conflict

Masquerading conflict

Managing Intragroup Conflict

Diagnosis

Measurement

Analysis

Collegiate norms

National Norms

Sources

Leadership Style

Situation A

Situation B

Situation C

Task Structure

Group Composition

Conflict Asymmetry

Size

Cohesiveness and Groupthink

Invulnerability

Rationale

Morality

Stereotypes

Pressure

Self-Censorship

Unanimity

Mindguards

External Threats

Intervention

Process

Team Building

Structural

Chapter 8: Intergroup Conflict

Summary

Dynamics of Intergroup Conflict

Perceptual and Behavioral Changes

Structure Formation

Decision Process

Conflict Aftermath

Effects of Intergroup Conflict

Managing Intergroup Conflict

Diagnosis

Measurement

Analysis

National Norms

Sources

System Differentiation

Task Interdependence

Dependence on Scarce Resources

Jurisdictional Ambiguity

Relationship Between Line and Staff

Intervention

Process

Intergroup Problem Solving

Problem Formulation

Problem Solution

Implementation Plan

Implementation of the Plan

Implementation Review

Organizational Mirroring.

Structural

Analysis of Task Interdependence

Chapter 9: Ethics and Morality

Summary

Ethics and Morality Defined

Behavioral Perspectives for Conflict Management

Ethical Evaluation of Conflict Management

Ethics and Leadership Structure

Four Methods of Discourse

Logistic Method

Problematic Method

Dialectical Method

Agonistic Method

General Appropriateness of the Methods

Logistic method

Problematic method

Dialectic Method

Agnostic Method

Practical Methods and Conflict Management Styles

Integrating Style

Obliging Style

Dominating Style

Avoiding Style

Compromising Style

Stages of Moral Development

Pre-Conventional Level

Conventional Level

Post-Conventional Level

Empirical Study on Stages and Styles

Implications for Organizations

Integrating method

Training in conflict management

Dominating and avoiding styles

Training in moral development

Stakeholder advocate

Ethics officer

Chapter 10: The Measurement of Conflict

Summary

Development of the ROCI–I

Exploratory Factor Analysis

Reliability Coefficients

Social Desirability Response Set

Confirmatory Factor Analysis

Convergent Validity

Discriminant Validity

Confirmatory Factor Analysis in Two Additional Samples

Factor Invariance

Invariance Across Samples

Invariance Across Levels

Development of the ROCI–II

Exploratory Factor Analysis

Reliability Coefficients

Social Desirability Response Set

Confirmatory Factor Analysis

Convergent Validity

Discriminant Validity

Confirmatory Factor Analysis in Five Additional Samples

Factor Invariance

Invariance for Forms

Invariance Across Levels

Invariance Across Samples

Uses of the Inventories

Organizational Diagnosis

Management Training

Teaching

Research

Sample Items of the ROCI–I and ROCI–II

Chapter 11: Epilogue

A Design for Managing Conflict

Intrapersonal Conflict

Interpersonal Conflict

Intragroup Conflict

Intergroup Conflict

Ethics of Managing Conflict

Measurement of Conflict

Appendix A: Cases

Case 1: Allen Manufacturing Corporation

Production Department

Maintenance Department

Incident 1

Incident 2

Case 2: New Employee at the Credit Union

Hiring a New Employee

Breach of Confidence

Dealing with a Member

Improper Work Procedures

Case 3: Minnis Service

Emergency Service Call

Friday Meeting

Another Incident

Case 4: The Hormel Strike at Austin, Minnesota

Collective Bargaining History, 1933–1954

A Guaranteed Annual Wage

A "No-layoff" Policy

Worker Autonomy

1954–1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

Appendix B: Exercises

Exercise 1: Contract Building

Exercise 2: Technique of Role Analysis

Exercise 3: Job Design

Exercise 4: Transactional Analysis

Exercise 5: Managing Interpersonal Conflict

Exercise 6: Team Building

Exercise 7: Intergroup Problem Solving

Exercise 8: Organizational Mirroring

Exercise 9: Analysis of Task Interdependence

References

Name Index

Subject Index

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Author(s)

Biography

M. Afzalur Rahim (Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh) is a University Distinguished Professor of Management, emeritus and Hays Watkins Research Fellow, Western Kentucky University.