Manual of Ready-Mixed Concrete  book cover
2nd Edition

Manual of Ready-Mixed Concrete

ISBN 9780751400793
Published December 22, 1992 by CRC Press
256 Pages

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Book Description

The new edition of this successful manual has been carefully revised throughout to take account of recent changes and to incorporate amendments required due to the publication of the revised BS 5328. This manual provides information on all aspects of the ready-mixed concrete industry, from the basic materials and their properties to the production, quality control and the use of ready-mixed concrete.

Table of Contents


Introduction: History of ready-mixed concrete

Materials for concrete


Maximum aggregate size


Silt, clay and fine dust

Shape and texture

Water absorption

Relative density

Bulk density, void content and voids ratio

Moisture content

Chloride content

Deleterious materials



Non-standard aggregates

Making the best use of natural resources

Moisture movement

Lightweight aggregates

Heavyweight aggregates

Cementitious materials

Grading, mean size and fineness

Relative density

Water demand

Setting times

Strength at days

Ratio of early to -day strength

Sulphate resistance

Alkali content

Chloride content


Ground granulated blastfurnace slag and pulverized-fuel ash




Water-reducers (normal and superplasticizers)

Air entrainment



Foaming agents

Other materials

Pfa to BS : Part , Grade A

Silica fume (micro-silica)


Water for concrete

Properties of fresh concrete

Uniformity and stability


Workability test methods


Water demand and water/cement ratio

Rate of change of workability

Influence of transporting on the workability of ready-mixed concrete

Cement content

Aggregate grinding

Water content and initial workability


Ambient conditions

Bulk volume of concrete

Transporting method

Effects of transporting of concrete on strength and workability

Limitations on delivery time

Retempering of concrete

Laboratory simulation of ready-mixed concrete

Properties of hardened concrete

Surface quality

Cracking of concrete


Strength development with age


Concrete mobility

Covercrete and heartcrete

A background to specifying durability

Corrosion of reinforcement

Chlorides in concrete

Alkali-silica reaction

Mix design

Principles of mix design

BRMCA method of concrete mix design

Use of base data from BRMCA mix design method

Example: selecting batch proportions for specified design mix requirements

Selection of batch proportions for a prescribed mix

Example: selecting batch proportions for a standard mix

The predictable future

Technical advice on concrete properties based on the BRMCA method

Mix design using ggbs or pfa

Example: an adjustment to a mix design for the use of pfa

Judging concrete mix design

Water/cement ratio—free or total

Meeting durability requirements

Equivalent strength grades—ensuring durability

Statistics for quality control, mix design and compliance

Statistical terms



Normal distribution

Calculations of mean, standard deviation and other parameters

Sources of variation

Influence of mean strength level on standard deviation

Standard deviation due to sampling and testing

Relevance of standard deviation for concrete mix design

Statistical implication of compliance rules

Current compliance rules of BS

Influence on producer’s risk of faults in sampling and testing for compliance

Quality control

Forward control

Immediate control

Retrospective control

Quality monitoring

The cusum system of strength monitoring


Control of mean strength

Monitoring of standard deviation

Significance of trends

Design of masks

Advantages over other systems

Cusum for correlation of predicted and actual strength

Example: cusum in operation

Plotting cusum charts

Action following changes

Investigation of the cause of a change


BRMCA concrete control system

Initial situation

Test data

Prediction of 28-day strength

Mean strength control (by counting rule)

Standard deviation

Early-28-day strength relationships

Sampling and testing ready-mixed concrete

Sampling ready-mixed concrete

Effects of non-standard testing on strength

Simple checks on validity of results


Simple visual checks on the crushed cube

NAMAS register of test houses

Interpreting test results for strength

Apparent compliance failures

Checking on validity

Action relating to valid compliance failures

Establishing strength of concrete in the structure

Interpretation of in-situ cube strength

Use of non-destructive testing

Remedial work

Increasing the strength and durability of concrete in the structure

Checking mix proportions or quantities

Analysis of fresh concrete

Chemical analysis of hardened concrete

Checking the quantity of concrete

Measuring construction volume

Measuring volume to be concreted

Measuring volume of plastic concrete after finishing

Measuring volume of hardened concrete

Variation in density and yield


Production, delivery and quality assurance

Production methods

Material types

Storage capacity

Processing sequence

Truckmixer capacity and throughput

Planning requirements

Quality control requirements

Regulatory requirements

Duration of operations

Health and safety

Organizing production and delivery





Quality assurance

Specifications and supervision

Interpreting specifications

Uses of concrete specifications

Specifying and supervising the supply of ready-mixed concrete

Specification clauses


Designated mixes

Ready-mixed concrete on site

Choosing ready-mixed concrete

Site mixing costs

Ready-mixed v. site mixing supply

Ready-mixed concrete plants on site

Site preparations for ready-mixed concrete

Site/supply liaison

Setting up a concrete supply

Programming concrete deliveries

Ready-mixed concrete on site

Delivery ticket

Addition of water at site



Placing the concrete

Compacting the concrete

Curing the concrete

Pumping concrete

The contractor

The pump hirer

The ready-mixed concrete supplier





Technical standards

Order processing

Technical records

Plant and production

Continuing surveillance and enforcement

NACCB accreditation



Appendix 1: QSRMC technical regulations

Appendix 2: Conversion factors

Appendix 3: Designated mixes in accordance with BS 5328: Part 2 Section 5 References

References to standards

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R Anderson and J D  Dewar


'this book will prove indispensable to technical and sales personnel in the concrete industry, and to civil and structural engineers, contractors, architects, and surveyors. Graduate trainees and advanced students will find it a valuable source of reference.' - Concrete Plant and Production

'The book provides a detailed ready reference for individual sectors of the industry, while at the same time providing the reader with useful perspective on the industry as a whole...this book will provide perspective indispensable to technical and sales personnel in the concrete industry, and to civil and structural engineers, contractors, architects, and surveyors.' - Concrete Abstracts

'This is a proper manual; it will be of great help to anyone wishing to understand and/or participate in the whole process (and service, as the authors would claim) of providing ready-mixed concrete...It should be noted and welcomed by all sectors of the industry and is a major contribution to the is excellent value and strongly recommended: the authors deserve congratulations and their industry is lucky to have such representatives.' - Construction and Building Materials