1st Edition

Mao's Road to Power: Revolutionary Writings, 1912-49: v. 6: New Stage (August 1937-1938) Revolutionary Writings, 1912-49

By Zedong Mao, Stuart Schram Copyright 2004

    By 1936, after a decade of Civil War and even before the Xi'an Incident, Mao Zedong had begun talking about a "New Stage" of cooperation between the Guomindang and the Communist Party. With the establishment of a framework for cooperation between the two parties, and as Japan began its brutal war against China, Mao began to develop this theme more systematically in both the political and military spheres. This volume documents the evolution of Mao's thinking in this area that found its culmination in his long report to the Sixth Enlarged Plenum of the Central Committee in October, 1938, explicitly entitled "On the New Stage" and presented here in its entirety. It was also during this period that Mao delivered a course of lectures on dialectical materialism after reading and annotating a number of works on Marxist theory by Soviet and Chinese authors. These lectures, from which "On Practice" and "On Contradiction" were later extracted, are also translated here in their entirety.

    Part 1 Texts; Part 1a 1937; Chapter 1 Speech at the “August 1” Rally of the Campaign to Mobilize for the War of Resistance (August 1, 1937); Chapter 2 1. It is indicated at the end of this document by a conventional character that this telegram was sent between 5:00 and 7:00 P.M; Chapter 3 1. It is indicated at the end of this document by a conventional character that this telegram was sent between 7:00 and 9:00 P.M; Chapter 4 1. In late July 1937, Chiang Kaishek convened a meeting of the National Military Council and invited the Chinese Communist Party to send representatives to Participate. At the beginning of August, the Communist Party Central Committee decided to send Zhou Enlai, Zhu De, and Ye Jianying to Nanjing for this purpose. This telegram was addressed to them by Luo Fu (Zhang Wentian) and Mao Zedong. (August 4, 1937); Chapter 5 The Red Army’s Operational Tasks, and Principles Relating to the Use of Our Troops; Chapter 6 Adopt a Modest Attitude While Consulting with People from All Sides (August 10, 1937); Chapter 7 1. At the beginning of her handwritten notes, which are also found in the Hoover Institution archives, Nym Wales wrote: “Mao Tse-tung—August 11th. My interview written 13th.” In My Yenan Notebooks, p. 151, she states, “Originally, I talked with him August 11 for this interview, but the date was changed to the 13th.” In Nianpu, Vol. 2, p. 12, it is indicated, however, that the interview took place on August 13, and we follow that dating. As in the case of the July 4 interview, we have modified the spelling of Chinese names to conform to the style of this edition; Chapter 8 Speech at the Evening Send-Off Party for the Northwest Battlefield Service Corps (August 15, 1937); Chapter 9 The Main Force of the Red Army Will Follow Not the Beiping-Hankou Railroad, but the Datong-Pukou Railroad (August 17, 1937); Chapter 10 1. It is indicated by a conventional character that this telegram was sent between 1:00 and 3:00 P.M; Chapter 11 To Comrade Ren Bishi and Comrade Deng Xiaoping of the General Political DePartment (August 19, 1937); Chapter 12 Telegram to Xie Juezai (August 21, 1937); Chapter 13 Order Concerning the Reorganization of the Red Army into the Eighth Route Army of the National Revolutionary Army (August 25, 1937); Chapter 14 For the Mobilization of All Our Forces to Achieve Victory in the War of Resistance Outline of the Propaganda DePartment of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party Regarding the Present Situation and the Tasks of Propaganda and Agitation (August 25, 1937); Chapter 15 Telegram Ordering the Reorganization of Various Independent Red Armies and Divisions in Northern Shaanxi (August 25, 1937); Chapter 16 The Situation and Our Tasks After the Outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War (September 1, 1937, noon); Chapter 17 Negotiate with Yan Xishan on the Zone of Red Army Activities (September 3, 1937); Chapter 18 Combat Liberalism (September 7, 1937); Chapter 19 1. It is indicated by a conventional character that this telegram was sent between 9:00 and 11:00 P.M; Chapter 20 Explanation of the Basic Principles for Waging Independent and Self-Reliant Guerrilla Warfare in the Hilly Areas of North China (September 12, 1937); Chapter 21 The Orientation to Which We Should Adhere While Negotiating the Reorganization in the Guerrilla Regions in the South (September 14, 1937); Chapter 22 On the Assessment of the Enemy’s Situation, and Our Strategic Dispositions (September 17, 1937); Chapter 23 The Question of the Strategic Zones of the Eighth Route Army (September 19, 1937, noon); Chapter 24 The Main Force of Wang Zhaoxiang s Unit Should Prepare to Support the Operations of the 120th Division (September 21, 1937); Chapter 25 Resolutely Maintain the Principle of Independent and Self-Reliant Guerrilla Warfare in the Mountainous Regions (September 21, 1937); Chapter 26 My Views About Developing Guerrilla Warfare in Shanxi (September 23, 1937); Chapter 27 Deployment for Guerrilla War in the Wutai Mountain Range Assuming Japanese Occupation of Taiyuan (September 24, 1937); Chapter 28 Our Declaration and Chiang’s Statement Have Proclaimed the Establishment of the United Front (September 25, 1937); Chapter 29 Guerrilla Warfare Should Be the Only Orientation of AU the Work in North China (September 25, 1937); Chapter 30 The Eighth Route Army Should Play a Strategic Role in the Decisive Battle at Baoding and in Northern Shanxi (September 25, 1937); Chapter 31 My Views Regarding Strategy in the Operations in North China (September 25, 1937); Chapter 32 Estimate of the Operational Plans of the Japanese Military in North China and Need for Urgent Mobilization by the Border Region in Preparation for War (September 27, 1937); Chapter 33 In the Dangerous Situation Prevailing in North China, We Must Firmly Uphold the Orientation of Waging Guerrilla War (September 29, 1937, 10:00 a.m.); Chapter 34 Urgent Tasks of the Chinese Revolution Following the Establishment of Guomindang-Communist Cooperation (September 29, 1937); Chapter 35 The Results of the Pingxingguan Campaign (October 1, 1937); Chapter 36 Treat the Friendly Armies Which Are Put Under the Command of the Eighth Route Army Correctly (October 4, 1937); Chapter 37 On the Operational Deployment of Every Division in Shanxi (October 5, 1937, 3:00 P.M.); Chapter 38 1. Zhou Suyuan (1879–1958) was born in Bijie, Guizhou. He Participated in the Revolution of 1911 and served as premier of the military government of Guizhou. Zhou joined the Long March of the Second Field Army of the Red Army and reached northern Shaanxi in 1936. He served as a senior adviser to the Eighth Route Army after the outbreak of the anti-Japanese war. In 1938, he returned to his home province, as he had told Mao he intended to do. (October 6, 1937); Chapter 39 Supplementary Opinions About Operations in North China (October 6, 1937, 1:00 a.m.); Chapter 40 1. It is indicated by a conventional character that this telegram was sent between 5:00 and 7:00 P.M; Chapter 41 1. This preface was written by Mao in 1937 for an edition of his Rural Surveys, which never appeared. When the volume was finally published in 1941, Mao added a second preface and a postface, which appear in Volume VII of our edition. The texts themselves were included in Volume III, under the dates of their composition (from 1928 to 1930). (October 6, 1937); Chapter 42 1. Lei Jingtian (1904–1959) was born in Nanning, Guangxi. He served as president of the Superior Court of the Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia Border Region and was chief judge in the case of Huang Kegong at the time. (October 10, 1937); Chapter 43 The Crucial Point in the Combat Situation in North China Is in the Taihang Mountains in the Area of Niangziguan and Longquanguan (October 13, 1937); Chapter 44 Opinions Regarding Strategic Deployment in North China After the Fall of Taiyuan (October 13, 1937); Chapter 45 On the Problem of Confiscating the Property of Chinese Traitors (October 15, 1937); Chapter 46 Use Guerrilla Warfare to Cooperate in the Operations of Friendly Armies (October 16, 1937); Chapter 47 On Lu Xun; Chapter 48 The Operational Deployment of the Eighth Route Army After the Japanese Army Has Taken Taiyuan (October 20, 1937); Chapter 49 The Operational Deployment of Units Such as the 129th and 120th Divisions (October 21, 1937); Chapter 50 Restore the System of Political Commissars and Political Organs in the Army (October 22, 1937); Chapter 51 The Operational Deployment of General Headquarters and of the 115th Division (October 22, 1937); Chapter 52 Inscription to Commemorate the Founding and Opening of the Northern Shaanxi Public School (October 23, 1937); Chapter 53 Our Duties (October 23, 1937); Chapter 54 1. It is indicated by a conventional character that this telegram was sent between 11:00 a.m. and 1:00 P.M; Chapter 55 The Border Region Should Immediately Carry Out Preparation and Mobilization for a Direct War of Resistance (October 23, 1937); Chapter 56 We Must Link the Spirit of Bravery with the Spirit of Prudence (October 25, 1937); Chapter 57 Interview with British Journalist James Bertram (October 25, 1937); Chapter 58 The Decisive Battle at the Moment Is Along the Zhengding-Taiyuan Railway Line (October 25, 1937, 5:00 a.m.); Chapter 59 The Deployment of the 120th Division in Northwestern Shanxi (October 27, 1937); Chapter 60 Outline for a Report on the Current Situation in the War of Resistance and the Party’s Tasks (October 1937); Chapter 61 Instructions at the Inauguration Ceremony for the Buildings of the Anti-Japanese University (October 1937); Chapter 62 1. Ai Siqi (1910–1966) had published in 1934 an extremely influential work of popularization of Marxism, entitled Dazhong zhexue (Philosophy for the Masses) and was admitted into the Chinese Communist Party a year later. In 1936 he had taken the side of “literature for national defense,” rather than that of “people’s literature,” and in 1937 he had gone to Yan’an, where he rapidly became one of the Party’s most influential propagandists. (1937) 2. The letter is dated simply 1937 in the available sources, but it must have been written no earlier than October, since Ai Siqi arrived in Yan’an only at that time; Chapter 63 1. This is Mao Zedong’s speech at the opening ceremony of the Northern Shaanxi Public School. (November 1, 1937); Chapter 64 After the Fall of Taiyuan, North China Will Carry on a Guerrilla War of Resistance Against Japan with the Eighth Route Army as the Main Force (November 8, 1937); Chapter 65 Opinions Regarding the Situation in North China and Readjustments in the Deployment of the Eighth Route Army (November 9, 1937, 4:00 a.m.); Chapter 66 The Situation and Tasks in the Anti-Japanese War After the Fall of Shanghai and Taiyuan (November 12, 1937); Chapter 67 The Tasks of the Eighth Route Army in Shanxi During the Transition to a Full-Scale War of Resistance (November 13, 1937); Chapter 68 Further Carry Out the Principle of Independence and Self-Reliance Within the United Front (November 15, 1937); Chapter 69 The Cavalry Regiment of the Eighth Route Army Should Advance Toward the Mongolian Border (November 16, 1937); Chapter 70 The Urgent Task at Present Is to Strengthen Security Along the River (November 17, 1937, in the evening); Chapter 71 To Wen Yunchang (November 27, 1937); Chapter 72 To Surround and Attack the Bandits in the Sanbian Area, There Must Be a Comprehensive Plan (November 28, 1937, 3:00 .m.); Chapter 73 Operational Methods for Dealing with the Enemy Troops That Are Attacking the Shanxi-Chahar-Hebei Border Region (December 5, 1937); Chapter 74 To the Ninth Brigade of the Anti-Japanese Military and Political University (December 15, 1937); Chapter 75 Send Two Detachments to the East of the Beiping-Hankou Railway to Carry Out Guerrilla Missions (December 16, 1937); Chapter 76 We Should Resolutely Uphold the Principle of the United Front in the Territory of Friendly Armies (December 24, 1937); Chapter 77 We Should Concentrate Our Forces to Fight Two or Three Victorious Campaigns While the Enemy Is Moving Southward (December 29, 1937); Chapter 78 Assessment Regarding the Offensive Situation of the Attacking Japanese Army, and Proposals Regarding the Deployment of Our Own Forces (December 30, 1937); Chapter 79 Let the Enemy Attack Wuhan and Be Trapped in Our Strategic Encirclement (December 30, 1937); Part 1b 1938; Chapter 80 1. This article as published in Jiefang was introduced by the following paragraph: This essay is Comrade Chen Bojun’s excerpt of the section on guerrilla tactics in Comrade Mao Zedong’s 1934 pamphlet, Guerrilla Warfare. In order to adapt it to the conditions of the anti-Japanese war, Comrade Chen has made some additions and deletions in wording and paragraphing, and it has also been revised by Comrade Mao. It is now published in this periodical as reference material for leading cadres in the anti-Japanese guerrilla war around the country. The editors of Junshi wenji (p. 152) confirm that this introduction was actually written by Mao. Mao’s 1934 pamphlet is not available to us and could not be included in Volume IV of this edition. (January 11, 1938); Chapter 81 To Ai Siqi (January 12, 1938, at night); Chapter 82 1. As stated in the source note, this interview appeared in the issue of Jiefang dated January 11, 1938, but in China at this time, the effective date of publication of a periodical often did not correspond exactly to the date on the cover. We therefore follow the indication in the introductory note to the Jiefang version to the effect that the interview took place on February 2; Chapter 83 The Region of Mount Wulong Offers Prospects for Development; Highly Skilled Cadres Should Be Sent There (February 9, 1938); Chapter 84 Speech at the Yan’an Mass Rally Against Aggression (Delivered at 7 P.M. on February 11, 1938); Chapter 85 1 Fan Changjiang (1909–1970), a native of Sichuan, had been sent to Xi’an and Yan’an by the Tianjin Dagongbao to report on developments following the Xi’an Incident. See, in Volume V, p. 631, Mao’s letter to him thanking him for his positive assessment. On his return from the Northwest in 1939, he joined the Chinese Communist Party. (February 15, 1938); Chapter 86 The Mao Mountain Range Is Advantageous for the Expansion of the New Fourth Army (February 15, 1938); Chapter 87 Opinion Concerning the 115th Division Advancing to Hebei, Shandong, and Other Places in Three Steps (February 15, 1938); Chapter 88 Strive to Establish a Key Strategic Fulcrum for Engaging in a Prolonged War of Resistance (February 21, 1938); Chapter 89 We Must Deploy Sufficient Forces on Exterior Lines When the Japanese Army Is Launching a Deep Penetration Attack (February 23, 1938); Chapter 90 1 He Changgong (1900–1987), a native of Hunan, was deputy director of the Anti-Japanese Military and Political Academy, but because the director, Lin Biao, was in very bad health, he was in fact in charge, as Mao indicates below. (February 25, 1938); Chapter 91 We Must Do Our Utmost to Wipe Out the Enemy Advancing Westward from Fucheng (February 25, 1938, 3:00 P.M.); Chapter 92 The 343rd Brigade Should Immediately Change Its Battle Plans (February 28, 1938); Chapter 93 Interview with United Press Reporter Wang Gongda (February 1938); Chapter 94 An Account of the Founding of the Lu Xun Academy of Arts (February 1938); Chapter 95 Concerning the Deployment for the Consolidation of the Defenses Along the River (March 2, 1938); Chapter 96 1. This is Mao Zedong’s talk to the graduating students in the sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth classes (dui) of the Northern Shaanxi Public School. (March 3, 1938); Chapter 97 On Condition That Our Route of Retreat Not Be Cut, Our Main Force May Stay Behind in Shanxi to Attack the Enemy (March 3, 1938,5:00 a.m.); Chapter 98 The Enemy’s Situation and the Deployment of the 115th Division (March 3, 1938, midnight); Chapter 99 Instructions to the Unit of Chen Guang and Luo Ronghuan Regarding the Question of the Actions They Should Take (March 5,1938, midnight); Chapter 100 Make a Planned Deployment for Guerrilla Warfare in the Shanxi-Henan Border Region (March 6, 1938); Chapter 101 The 120th Division Should Join Forces with Fu Zuoyi to Destroy the Enemy Who Is Advancing Westward (March 6, 1938, midnight); Chapter 102 The 358th Brigade Ought to Begin Fighting from the Direction of Loufan (March 7, 1938, 2:00 P.M.); Chapter 103 Guidance by the Military Affairs Commission Shall Be Limited to Putting Forward the Overall Orientation (March 8, 1938, 4:00 P.M.); Chapter 104 The Eighth Route Army Should Prepare to Fight Successive Battles in the Shaanxi-Gansu-Henan Region (March 9, 1938, 10:00 a.m.); Chapter 105 Speech at the Rally in Memory of the Thirteenth Anniversary of Sun Yatsen’s Death, and in Honor of the Officers and Men Who Have Died in the War of Resistance (March 12, 1938); Chapter 106 It Is Appropriate That the Main Force of Liu Bocheng’s Division and Xu Haidong’s Brigade Carry Out the Task of Combat at Zhengtai (March 14, 1938, midnight); Chapter 107 Pay Attention to Distinguishing Between the Two Stages When Holding Discussions with the Guomindang on Military Affairs in North China (March 17, 1938, 2:00 P.M.); Chapter 108 It Is Advantageous for Liu Bocheng’s Division to Stay on the East Side at Present to Conduct Operations (March 18, 1938, midnight); Chapter 109 The Main Force of He Long’s Division Should Gradually Move Southward to Replace Chen Guang’s Brigade of Lin Biao’s Division (March 21, 1938); Chapter 110 Establish Solid Bases in the Hebei-Shanxi-Henan Area with the Greatest Possible Speed (March 24, 1938); Chapter 111 The Principal Operational Tasks in Southeastern Shanxi (March 24, 1938, 2:00 P.M.); Chapter 112 Immediately Organize Guerrilla Detachments Which Operate Using the Name of the Eighth Route Army (March 24, 1938); Chapter 113 It Is Urgent to Establish a Unified Military and Political Leadership in the Hebei-Shandong-Henan Region (March 25, 1938); Chapter 114 It Is Appropriate That Liu Bocheng’s Division and Xu Haidong’s Brigade Should Be Located to the East of the Tongpu Railway Line 1 Regarding the Tongpu railway line, see above, the note to the text of February 23, 1938. (March 29, 1938); Chapter 115 Speech at the Opening Ceremony for the Second Session of the Northern Shaanxi Public School (April 1, 1938); Chapter 116 On the Problem of Cooperation Between the Guomindang and the Communist Party (April 5, 1938); Chapter 117 What Should You Learn at the Anti-Japanese Military and Political University? (April 9, 1938); Chapter 118 Speech at the Opening Ceremony of the First Representative Assembly of the Border Region National Defense Education Commission (April 11, 1938); Chapter 119 Consolidate and Expand the Shanxi-Chahar-Hebei Base Area (April 20, 1938); Chapter 120 Develop Guerrilla Warfare in a Big Way on the Plains of Hebei and Shandong (April 21, 1938); Chapter 121 Speech at the Lu Xun Academy of Arts (April 28, 1938); Chapter 122 Form Organizations and Fight Japan (April 30, 1938); Chapter 123 Expand the Guerrilla War in the Rear of the Enemy in Central China (May 4, 1938); Chapter 124 Both Sides Will Benefit If We Cooperate, Both Sides Will Suffer If We Split (May 4, 1938); Chapter 125 The Argument Put Forward by the Dagongbao Regarding a Quasi-Decisive Battle Is Incorrect (May 13, 1938); Chapter 126 Offensives Are Primary, But They Are Also Subject to Conditions (May 14, 1938, at night); Chapter 127 Proclamation of the Government of the Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia Border Region and the Rear Office of the Eighth Route Army (May 15, 1938); Chapter 128 1. It is indicated by a conventional character that this telegram was sent between 7:00 and 9:00 a.m; Chapter 129 Telegram of Congratulations to the “May Thirtieth” Rallies on the Movement of Mobilization for the Resistance War Held by All Garrisons and Military Formations (May 22, 1938); Chapter 130 On Protracted War; Chapter 131 1. Mao Yuju was Mao Zedong’s first cousin, who had served as his tutor during Mao’s youth. (May 26, 1938); Chapter 132 We Should Develop Guerrilla Warfare Extensively in North China (May 26, 1938); Chapter 133 1. Mao wrote this letter in his capacity as chief editor of the series Kang-Ri zhanzheng congshu (Collected Writings on the Anti-Japanese War), in reply to Guo Huaruo, one of the authors of Kangri youji zhanzheng de yiban wenti (All the Problems of the Anti-Japanese Guerrilla War). Regarding this latter work, see below, Mao’s “Problems of Strategy in the Anti-Japanese Guerrilla War.” (May 28, 1938); Chapter 134 1. May 30 is the date of publication in Jiefang; in the various Chinese editions of this work it is dated simply May 1938; Chapter 135 The New Fourth Army Can Maneuver Freely in the Enemy’s Rear (June 2, 1938); Chapter 136 Urgent Statement by Seven Persons, Including Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai (June 3, 1938); Chapter 137 A Telegraphic Reply Thanking the Congress of the Communist Party of the United States (June 8, 1938); Chapter 138 We Are Planning to Create a Base in the Daqing Mountains (June 11, 1938); Chapter 139 1. Wu Liangping was at this time editor of the Party’s weekly organ Jiefang in Yan’an (June 15, 1938); Chapter 140 Freely Develop Guerrilla Warfare in North and Northwest China (June 15, 1938); Chapter 141 Conversation with the Delegates of theWorld Students’ Federation, Messrs. Coleman, Garden, Ford, and Redmond (July 2, 1938, in Yan’an); Chapter 142 Launch Guerrilla Warfare in the Relatively Weakly Defended Regions in the Enemy’s Rear (July 3, 1938); Chapter 143 Congratulatory Telegram from Comrade Mao Zedong to the People’s Political Council (July 5, 1938); Chapter 144 Our Views on the People’s Political Council (July 5, 1938); Chapter 145 The Situation of the Enemy in Eastern Hebei, and the Requirements for Work in This Area (July 8, 1938); Chapter 146 Our Overall Orientation in the Course of the War of Resistance (August 6, 1938); Chapter 147 The Overall Orientation of the Work of the Fourth Column of the Eighth Route Army (August 13, 1938); Chapter 148 The Monetary Policy of the Border Region (August 17, 1938); Chapter 149 The Situation in Eastern Hebei and the Rapid Regularization of the Guerrilla Forces in Eastern Hebei (September 10, 1938); Chapter 150 Cheng Zihua Should Lead Our Troops to Attack the Area Northwest of Liulin (September 11, 1938, midnight); Chapter 151 Overcome Difficulties, and Create the Hebei-Rehe-Chahar Base Area (September 26, 1938, noon); Chapter 152 A Letter to Chiang Kaishek (September 29, 1938); Chapter 153 The Creation of a Base in the Hebei-Rehe Border Region Is of Strategic Significance (October 2, 1938); Chapter 154 Mobilize Our Forces on Every Hand to Defeat the Enemy’s Encirclement of the Shanxi-Chahar-Hebei Border Region (October 2, 1938); Chapter 155 On the New Stage; Chapter 156 Undertake Long-Term, Arduous Struggle to Create the Hebei-Rehe-Chahar Base Area (October 15, 1938); Chapter 157 1. Liu Yi (1913– ), a native of Zhejiang, was at this time a clerical worker in political instruction in the First Detachment of the Sixth Brigade of the Anti-Japanese Military and Political University. (October 30, 1938); Chapter 158 1. This is an extract from Mao Zedong’s concluding remarks at the Sixth Plenum. (November 5, 1938); Chapter 159 1. This is another portion of Mao’s concluding remarks at the Sixth Plenum, delivered on November 6, 1938. (November 6, 1938); Chapter 160 Zhang Yunyi May Lead Two or Three Battalions to Cross the River and Operate on the Other Side (November 10, 1938); Chapter 161 Persist in Long-Term Guerrilla Warfare in the Daqing Mountains (November 24, 1938); Chapter 162 Central Tasks of the Central Hebei Region (November 24, 1938); Chapter 163 Opinions Concerning Work in the Hebei-Rehe-Chahar Area (November 25, 1938); Chapter 164 It Is Appropriate That Chen Guang andLuo Ronghuan Should Lead the Division Headquarters and the Main Forces of Chen Guang’s Brigade to Shandong and Northern Anhui (November 25, 1938); Chapter 165 1. Deng Baoshan (1896–1968) of Tianshui, Gansu Province. During the War of Resistance against Japan, he was commander of the Guomindang Twenty-first Army Group, as well as commander of the New First Army, and commander-in-chief of the Shanxi-Shaanxi-Suiyuan Border Region. (December 5, 1938); Chapter 166 Appeal at the Evening Meeting for Cadres Doing Inspection Work in the Yan’an Party, Government, Army, and Mass Associations (December 13, 1938); Chapter 167 1. Yang Lingde (1905‒ ) was a native of Inner Mongolia. He was then a reporter for Dagongbao stationed at Yulin, Shaanxi Province. (December 14, 1938); Part 2a Lectures; Chapter 168 On Dialectical Materialism (Lecture Notes); Part 2b Commentaries; Chapter 169 Noteson A Course in Dialectical Materialism by M. Shirokov and Others (November 1936–April 1937); Chapter 170 Annotations on Dialectical Materialism and Historical Materialism by M.B. Mitin and Others (Volume 1) [Zhiyuan Shen]; Chapter 171 Annotations to Li Da’s Outline of Sociology; Chapter 172 Summary of Philosophy and Life by Ai Siqi (1937)Part3 Brief Sayings and Inscriptions (October 23,1937);


    Stuart R. Schram was born in Excelsior, Minnesota, in 1924. After graduating fron the University of Minnesota in physics, he took his Ph.D. in political science at Columbia University. From 1954 to 1967, he conducted research at the Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques in Paris, and from 1968 until 1989, he was Professor of Politics with reference to China at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. Since 1989, he has worked at the Fairbank Center, Harvard University, on the edition of Mao Zedong’s pre-1949 writings of which this is the sixth volume.His research has dealt with Leninist theories and their application in Asia, Chinese history and politics in the twentieth century, and the influence of the Chinese tradition on the theory and practice of the state in China. His works include Mao Tse-tung (1967), The Political Thought of Mao Tse-tung (1969), Marxism and Asia (in collaboration with Hélène Carrère d’Encausse) (1969), Ideology and Policy in China since the Third Plenum, 1978–1984 (1984), and The Thought of Mao Tse-Tung (1989). He has also edited a volume entitled Foundations and Limits of State Power in China (1987).Mao Tse-tung and The Thought of Mao Tse-tung have been translated into Chinese and published in Beijing. Stuart Schram is a member of the Authors Guild., Nancy J. Hodes was born in Philadelphia in 1946, and spent her formative years in Beijing, China, where her father taught physiology at the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. After graduating from Radcliffe College in Far Eastern Languages, she edited the Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars, taught Chinese, and worked as a freelance translator. She returned to China in the 1970s to teach English and work on A Chinese-English Dictionary at the Beijing Foreign Languages Institute (#1). Later she taught Chinese at Tufts University and Harvard Summer School, worked as a translator for M.E. Sharpe’s translation journals and the Mao’s Writings Project at Brown University, and served a Assistant Editor of the Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies. After receiving her Ph.D in Chinese literature from Harvard University, she taught East Asian Civilizations and Chinese at Boston College, and worked beginning in 1991 with Stuart R. Schram on the present edition of the Mao Zedong’s pre-1949 writings. Until 1995, she served concurrently as Associate Director of the Boston Research Center for the 21st Century, founded in 1993 by Soka Gakkai International President Daisaku Ikeda.