Mapping the Total Value Stream: A Comprehensive Guide for Production and Transactional Processes, 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Mapping the Total Value Stream

A Comprehensive Guide for Production and Transactional Processes, 1st Edition

By Mark A. Nash, Sheila R. Poling

Productivity Press

294 pages | 200 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2008-06-24
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Description

Mapping the Total Value Stream defines and elaborates on the concepts of value stream mapping (VSM) for both production and transactional processes. This book reshapes and extends the lessons originally put forward in a number of pioneering works including the popular ,Value Stream Management for the Lean Office. It reinforces fundamental concepts and theoretical models with real-world applications and complete examples of the value stream mapping technique. To educate VSM mappers on the specific mechanics of the technique, the text provides in-depth explanations for commonly encountered situations.

The authors also provide a more complete perspective on the concept of availability. While they discuss availability of equipment in transactional processes, they extend the concept by elaborating on availability as it applies to employees. The calculation of process lead time for work queues is taken to an advanced level – not only is the calculation of this lead time explained, but the text also covers the very real possibility of having more work in the queue than available time.

While previous books have focused on only production process VSM or transactional process VSM, this work meets the real needs of both manufacturers and service sector organizations by dealing with both types. It goes beyond explaining each scenario, to teach readers what techniques are commonly applicable to both, and also explains areas of difference so that mappers will be able to readily adapt to whatever unique situations present themselves.

Table of Contents

The Big Picture … Literally

Understanding the Purpose and Power of Value Stream Mapping

Dissecting a Basic Value-Stream Map

The Process or Production Flow in a Value Stream Map

The Communication or Information Flow in a Value Stream Map

The Time Lines and Travel Distances Shown in a Value Stream Map

Understanding the Icons Used In Value Stream Mapping

Production vs. Transactional Mapping: Understanding the Similarities and Differences

SECTION I: Current State: Understanding and Mapping Your Existing Process

Identifying the Value Stream

Option 1: The Matrix Approach

Production Process Matrix

Transactional Process Matrix

Option 2: Ready, Aim, Map—Production and Transactional Value Streams

Collecting Basic Information about the Current State.

Capturing Basic Information

Begin to Map Your Process

Calculating TAKT Time

Documenting Manufacturing (or Production) Process Flow

Identifying and Mapping The Main Flow

Map How the Product Moves from One Step to the Next

Map Where the Inventory Is

Map Where the Operators Are Located

Putting It All Together

Mapping Subtasks and Parallel Flows

Mapping Subtasks

Mapping Parallel or Alternate Paths

Lining Up Process Steps

Aligning the Process Horizontally

Aligning the Process Vertically

The Power of Speed

Documenting Transactional Process Flow

“The Product” in a Transactional World

Choosing the Level to Map

Understand the Focus of the Value Stream

Start with the Workflow

Mapping Subtasks and Parallel Tasks

Showing the Flow Clearly

Providing Definition to Subtasks and Parallel Paths

Mapping the Reality of Rework

Using Terminators to Clarify Rework in the Flow

The Power of Simplicity

Interpreting and Understanding Basic Product Flow

Showing Where Flow Starts and Ends

The Traditional Mindset: Pushing Work

The Lean Concept of Pull Systems

Controlling Material When Pull Is Not Possible

Calculating Customer Demand and TAKT Time

Showing Inventory

Capturing Cycle Time

Summarizing Basic Process Flow

Case Study In A Manufacturing Environment

Utilizing Data in Manufacturing

How to Add Power to Your Map with Facts

Record the Number of Operators for Each Process

Record the Cycle Time of Each Process Step

Record the Changeover Time from One Process to Another

Record Uptime or the Reliability of Equipment

Record the Availability of Equipment

Record Work Content and Non-Value-Added Time

Record the Defect Rate

Other Data You Might Want To Record on Your Map

Basic Process Flow in a Transactional World

Transactional Versus Manufacturing Process Flow

Difference 1: Speed of Transactional Processes

Option A: Map the Process by Using the Employees’ Knowledge of the Process

Option B: Map the Process by Working Backwards from the Last Process Step

Option C: Use Both Options A and B

Difference 2: Transactional Employees Sometimes Do Not See a Process

Difference 3: TAKT Time in Transactional Value Streams

Difference 4: Work Queues vs. Piles of Inventory

Transactional Data Is Different … Or Is It?

Recording the Number of Employees in A Transactional Setting

Documenting Cycle Time

Documenting Expected (Estimated) Cycle Time

Documenting Changeover Time

Documenting Uptime or Reliability

Documenting Availability of Equipment (AOE)

Documenting Availability of Personnel (AOP )

How to Document Tasks that Supervisors and Managers Demand Be Performed Immediately

Documenting Defects

Capturing Other Data

Case Study in a Transactional Environment

Capturing Travel Distances throughout the Value Stream

Measuring Travel Distance in the Value Stream

Measuring and Documenting the Travel Path of the Product

Measuring and Documenting the Travel Path of Employees

Physical Measurement of Travel

Showing Travel Distance on A Value Stream Map

Documenting Long Travel Distances within A Process Step

Check for Hidden Travel In Transactional Processes

Showing the “Value” from the Process Flow

Measuring Total Cycle Time

Interpreting Parallel or Subtask Cycle Times

Measuring Process Lead Time

Addressing Multiple Locations of Inventory as well as Parallel or Subtask Paths

Measuring Value-Added Time: An Alternative to Total Cycle Time

Measuring Total Travel Distance

Documenting Total Work Content Time

Capturing Communication Flow in a Production Setting

Identify the Customer

Identify the Supplier

Identify the Control Point of Communication

Capturing formal Communication

How to Document Faxes and Telephone Calls

Capturing Informal Communication

Documenting Communication in Remanufacturing And Mro Settings

the More Communication, the Better—or Is It?

Capturing Communication Flow in a Transactional Environment

Separating Communication Flow from Process Flow

Similarities of Transactional Communication to Communication in Manufacturing

Differences in Transactional Communication

Mapping Customers Who Also Function As Suppliers and Control Points

Mapping Multiple Control Points and Informal Control Points

Mapping Multiple Control Points

Mapping What Seem Like No Control Points but Are Informal Control Points

Remember to Map What You See

Case Study in a Transactional Environment

Presenting the Current State Map to the Employees Involved

The Purpose of Presenting the Map

How to Present the Map: Keep an Open Mind

Make Sure Your Audience Understands the Map

Keep Your Presentation Brief and Focused

Make Sure Your Audience Can Read the Map

Individual Maps vs. One Large Display Map

Digital Photos

Digital Maps Created with Software

Slide Presentations

Explain the Icons You Used in Creating the Map

Answer All Questions and Comments while You’re Presenting

Change the Map as You Present It

Document Opportunities for Additional Improvement Projects

SECTION II: Future State: Designing and Mapping Your New (or Desired) Process

Creating a Future State Map in a Manufacturing Environment

Using Future-State Icons

The Future State Map is A Blueprint for Change

Brainstorm Using the Current State Map

Know When to Start Fresh

Draw the Future State Using the VSM Icons

the Supermarket Icon

the Withdrawal Kanban Icon

the Production Kanban Icon

the Sequenced Pull Ball Icon

the Signal Kanban Icon

Using a Pacemaker to Determine Process Speed

Using Line-Balancing Charts to Determine if Flow is Balanced

Using FIFO Lanes to Manage the Flow of the Value Stream

Using Load Leveling to Manage Mix

the Importance of Using Kaizen Bursts

Case Study in a Manufacturing Environment

Presenting the Future State Map

Creating a Future State Map in a Transactional Environment

Getting Started: Four Points to Keep in Mind

Understand the Similarities and Differences between Production and Transactional Value Streams

Recognize that Many Production Value Streams Appear in the Transactional World

Address Employees’ Concerns Early

Accept that Continuous Flow May Be Difficult to Achieve

Employees Have Answers

Ask Leading Questions

Reinforce that there Is a Process to the Work Being Done

How to Address the Problem of Availability of Personnel

How to Address the Problem of Lack of Flow

Focus on Showing Positive Changes

Emphasize Reduction of Bureaucracy

Show How Jobs Can Be Simplified

Emphasize Work Flow and Reduced Handling of Work

Using the Ideal State As A Tool

Production vs. Transactional: the Path is the Same

Case Studies in Transactional Environments

SECTION III: Improvement State: Creating the Structure for Using Your Insights and Knowledge to Improve the Process

Creating the Action Plan

Identify the Process Loops

Prioritize the Process Loops

Tie Priority to Key Performance Indicators

Establish Your Criteria for Prioritization

Prioritize the Work within Each Loop

Present Your Maps to the Workforce

Present Your Maps to the Council

Implementing Change

Assign A Value Stream Manager

Attacking the Action Plan

Using Action Plans for a Structured and Goal-Oriented Approach to Improvement

Using Lean Progress Charts

Speed and Accountability are Critical to Success

Focus on Your Specific Goals

Remember

It’s Continuous Improvement

Quality Glossary

Index

About the Originator

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
BUS000000
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS / General
BUS053000
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS / Quality Control
BUS070050
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS / Industries / Manufacturing Industries