Mapping the Total Value Stream : A Comprehensive Guide for Production and Transactional Processes book cover
1st Edition

Mapping the Total Value Stream
A Comprehensive Guide for Production and Transactional Processes

ISBN 9781563273599
Published June 24, 2008 by Productivity Press
294 Pages 200 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Mapping the Total Value Stream defines and elaborates on the concepts of value stream mapping (VSM) for both production and transactional processes. This book reshapes and extends the lessons originally put forward in a number of pioneering works including the popular ,Value Stream Management for the Lean Office. It reinforces fundamental concepts and theoretical models with real-world applications and complete examples of the value stream mapping technique. To educate VSM mappers on the specific mechanics of the technique, the text provides in-depth explanations for commonly encountered situations.

The authors also provide a more complete perspective on the concept of availability. While they discuss availability of equipment in transactional processes, they extend the concept by elaborating on availability as it applies to employees. The calculation of process lead time for work queues is taken to an advanced level – not only is the calculation of this lead time explained, but the text also covers the very real possibility of having more work in the queue than available time.

While previous books have focused on only production process VSM or transactional process VSM, this work meets the real needs of both manufacturers and service sector organizations by dealing with both types. It goes beyond explaining each scenario, to teach readers what techniques are commonly applicable to both, and also explains areas of difference so that mappers will be able to readily adapt to whatever unique situations present themselves.

Table of Contents

The Big Picture … Literally

Understanding the Purpose and Power of Value Stream Mapping
Dissecting a Basic Value-Stream Map
The Process or Production Flow in a Value Stream Map
The Communication or Information Flow in a Value Stream Map
The Time Lines and Travel Distances Shown in a Value Stream Map
Understanding the Icons Used In Value Stream Mapping
Production vs. Transactional Mapping: Understanding the Similarities and Differences

SECTION I: Current State: Understanding and Mapping Your Existing Process

Identifying the Value Stream

Option 1: The Matrix Approach
Production Process Matrix
Transactional Process Matrix
Option 2: Ready, Aim, Map—Production and Transactional Value Streams

Collecting Basic Information about the Current State.

Capturing Basic Information
Begin to Map Your Process
Calculating TAKT Time

Documenting Manufacturing (or Production) Process Flow

Identifying and Mapping The Main Flow
Map How the Product Moves from One Step to the Next
Map Where the Inventory Is
Map Where the Operators Are Located
Putting It All Together
Mapping Subtasks and Parallel Flows
Mapping Subtasks
Mapping Parallel or Alternate Paths
Lining Up Process Steps
Aligning the Process Horizontally
Aligning the Process Vertically
The Power of Speed

Documenting Transactional Process Flow

 “The Product” in a Transactional World
Choosing the Level to Map
Understand the Focus of the Value Stream
Start with the Workflow
Mapping Subtasks and Parallel Tasks

Showing the Flow Clearly

Providing Definition to Subtasks and Parallel Paths
Mapping the Reality of Rework
Using Terminators to Clarify Rework in the Flow
The Power of Simplicity

Interpreting and Understanding Basic Product Flow

Showing Where Flow Starts and Ends
The Traditional Mindset: Pushing Work
The Lean Concept of Pull Systems
Controlling Material When Pull Is Not Possible
Calculating Customer Demand and TAKT Time
Showing Inventory
Capturing Cycle Time
Summarizing Basic Process Flow
Case Study In A Manufacturing Environment

Utilizing Data in Manufacturing

How to Add Power to Your Map with Facts

Record the Number of Operators for Each Process
Record the Cycle Time of Each Process Step
Record the Changeover Time from One Process to Another
Record Uptime or the Reliability of Equipment
Record the Availability of Equipment
Record Work Content and Non-Value-Added Time
Record the Defect Rate
Other Data You Might Want To Record on Your Map

Basic Process Flow in a Transactional World

Transactional Versus Manufacturing Process Flow
Difference 1: Speed of Transactional Processes
Option A: Map the Process by Using the Employees’ Knowledge of the Process
Option B: Map the Process by Working Backwards from the Last Process Step
Option C: Use Both Options A and B
Difference 2: Transactional Employees Sometimes Do Not See a Process
Difference 3: TAKT Time in Transactional Value Streams
Difference 4: Work Queues vs. Piles of Inventory

Transactional Data Is Different … Or Is It?

Recording the Number of Employees in A Transactional Setting
Documenting Cycle Time
Documenting Expected (Estimated) Cycle Time
Documenting Changeover Time
Documenting Uptime or Reliability
Documenting Availability of Equipment (AOE)
Documenting Availability of Personnel (AOP )
How to Document Tasks that Supervisors and Managers Demand Be Performed Immediately
Documenting Defects
Capturing Other Data
Case Study in a Transactional Environment

Capturing Travel Distances throughout the Value Stream

Measuring Travel Distance in the Value Stream
Measuring and Documenting the Travel Path of the Product
Measuring and Documenting the Travel Path of Employees
Physical Measurement of Travel
Showing Travel Distance on A Value Stream Map
Documenting Long Travel Distances within A Process Step
Check for Hidden Travel In Transactional Processes

Showing the “Value” from the Process Flow

Measuring Total Cycle Time
Interpreting Parallel or Subtask Cycle Times
Measuring Process Lead Time
Addressing Multiple Locations of Inventory as well as Parallel or Subtask Paths
Measuring Value-Added Time: An Alternative to Total Cycle Time
Measuring Total Travel Distance
Documenting Total Work Content Time

Capturing Communication Flow in a Production Setting

Identify the Customer
Identify the Supplier
Identify the Control Point of Communication
Capturing formal Communication
How to Document Faxes and Telephone Calls
Capturing Informal Communication
Documenting Communication in Remanufacturing And Mro Settings
the More Communication, the Better—or Is It?

Capturing Communication Flow in a Transactional Environment

Separating Communication Flow from Process Flow
Similarities of Transactional Communication to Communication in Manufacturing
Differences in Transactional Communication
Mapping Customers Who Also Function As Suppliers and Control Points
Mapping Multiple Control Points and Informal Control Points
Mapping Multiple Control Points
Mapping What Seem Like No Control Points but Are Informal Control Points
Remember to Map What You See
Case Study in a Transactional Environment

Presenting the Current State Map to the Employees Involved

The Purpose of Presenting the Map
How to Present the Map: Keep an Open Mind
Make Sure Your Audience Understands the Map
Keep Your Presentation Brief and Focused
Make Sure Your Audience Can Read the Map
Individual Maps vs. One Large Display Map
Digital Photos
Digital Maps Created with Software
Slide Presentations
Explain the Icons You Used in Creating the Map
Answer All Questions and Comments while You’re Presenting
Change the Map as You Present It
Document Opportunities for Additional Improvement Projects

SECTION II: Future State: Designing and Mapping Your New (or Desired) Process

Creating a Future State Map in a Manufacturing Environment

Using Future-State Icons
The Future State Map is A Blueprint for Change
Brainstorm Using the Current State Map
Know When to Start Fresh
Draw the Future State Using the VSM Icons
the Supermarket Icon
the Withdrawal Kanban Icon
the Production Kanban Icon
the Sequenced Pull Ball Icon
the Signal Kanban Icon
Using a Pacemaker to Determine Process Speed
Using Line-Balancing Charts to Determine if Flow is Balanced
Using FIFO Lanes to Manage the Flow of the Value Stream
Using Load Leveling to Manage Mix
the Importance of Using Kaizen Bursts
Case Study in a Manufacturing Environment
Presenting the Future State Map

Creating a Future State Map in a Transactional Environment

Getting Started: Four Points to Keep in Mind
Understand the Similarities and Differences between Production and Transactional Value Streams
Recognize that Many Production Value Streams Appear in the Transactional World
Address Employees’ Concerns Early
Accept that Continuous Flow May Be Difficult to Achieve
Employees Have Answers
Ask Leading Questions
Reinforce that there Is a Process to the Work Being Done
How to Address the Problem of Availability of Personnel
How to Address the Problem of Lack of Flow
Focus on Showing Positive Changes
Emphasize Reduction of Bureaucracy
Show How Jobs Can Be Simplified
Emphasize Work Flow and Reduced Handling of Work
Using the Ideal State As A Tool
Production vs. Transactional: the Path is the Same
Case Studies in Transactional Environments

SECTION III: Improvement State: Creating the Structure for Using Your Insights and Knowledge to Improve the Process

Creating the Action Plan

Identify the Process Loops
Prioritize the Process Loops
Tie Priority to Key Performance Indicators
Establish Your Criteria for Prioritization
Prioritize the Work within Each Loop
Present Your Maps to the Workforce
Present Your Maps to the Council 

Implementing Change

Assign A Value Stream Manager
Attacking the Action Plan
Using Action Plans for a Structured and Goal-Oriented Approach to Improvement
Using Lean Progress Charts
Speed and Accountability are Critical to Success
Focus on Your Specific Goals


It’s Continuous Improvement

Quality Glossary


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