1st Edition

Mapping the Total Value Stream A Comprehensive Guide for Production and Transactional Processes

By Mark A. Nash, Sheila R. Poling Copyright 2008
    294 Pages 200 B/W Illustrations
    by Productivity Press

    294 Pages
    by Productivity Press

    Mapping the Total Value Stream defines and elaborates on the concepts of value stream mapping (VSM) for both production and transactional processes. This book reshapes and extends the lessons originally put forward in a number of pioneering works including the popular ,Value Stream Management for the Lean Office. It reinforces fundamental concepts and theoretical models with real-world applications and complete examples of the value stream mapping technique. To educate VSM mappers on the specific mechanics of the technique, the text provides in-depth explanations for commonly encountered situations.

    The authors also provide a more complete perspective on the concept of availability. While they discuss availability of equipment in transactional processes, they extend the concept by elaborating on availability as it applies to employees. The calculation of process lead time for work queues is taken to an advanced level – not only is the calculation of this lead time explained, but the text also covers the very real possibility of having more work in the queue than available time.

    While previous books have focused on only production process VSM or transactional process VSM, this work meets the real needs of both manufacturers and service sector organizations by dealing with both types. It goes beyond explaining each scenario, to teach readers what techniques are commonly applicable to both, and also explains areas of difference so that mappers will be able to readily adapt to whatever unique situations present themselves.

    The Big Picture … Literally

    Understanding the Purpose and Power of Value Stream Mapping
    Dissecting a Basic Value-Stream Map
    The Process or Production Flow in a Value Stream Map
    The Communication or Information Flow in a Value Stream Map
    The Time Lines and Travel Distances Shown in a Value Stream Map
    Understanding the Icons Used In Value Stream Mapping
    Production vs. Transactional Mapping: Understanding the Similarities and Differences

    SECTION I: Current State: Understanding and Mapping Your Existing Process

    Identifying the Value Stream

    Option 1: The Matrix Approach
    Production Process Matrix
    Transactional Process Matrix
    Option 2: Ready, Aim, Map—Production and Transactional Value Streams

    Collecting Basic Information about the Current State.

    Capturing Basic Information
    Begin to Map Your Process
    Calculating TAKT Time

    Documenting Manufacturing (or Production) Process Flow

    Identifying and Mapping The Main Flow
    Map How the Product Moves from One Step to the Next
    Map Where the Inventory Is
    Map Where the Operators Are Located
    Putting It All Together
    Mapping Subtasks and Parallel Flows
    Mapping Subtasks
    Mapping Parallel or Alternate Paths
    Lining Up Process Steps
    Aligning the Process Horizontally
    Aligning the Process Vertically
    The Power of Speed

    Documenting Transactional Process Flow

     “The Product” in a Transactional World
    Choosing the Level to Map
    Understand the Focus of the Value Stream
    Start with the Workflow
    Mapping Subtasks and Parallel Tasks

    Showing the Flow Clearly

    Providing Definition to Subtasks and Parallel Paths
    Mapping the Reality of Rework
    Using Terminators to Clarify Rework in the Flow
    The Power of Simplicity

    Interpreting and Understanding Basic Product Flow

    Showing Where Flow Starts and Ends
    The Traditional Mindset: Pushing Work
    The Lean Concept of Pull Systems
    Controlling Material When Pull Is Not Possible
    Calculating Customer Demand and TAKT Time
    Showing Inventory
    Capturing Cycle Time
    Summarizing Basic Process Flow
    Case Study In A Manufacturing Environment

    Utilizing Data in Manufacturing

    How to Add Power to Your Map with Facts

    Record the Number of Operators for Each Process
    Record the Cycle Time of Each Process Step
    Record the Changeover Time from One Process to Another
    Record Uptime or the Reliability of Equipment
    Record the Availability of Equipment
    Record Work Content and Non-Value-Added Time
    Record the Defect Rate
    Other Data You Might Want To Record on Your Map

    Basic Process Flow in a Transactional World

    Transactional Versus Manufacturing Process Flow
    Difference 1: Speed of Transactional Processes
    Option A: Map the Process by Using the Employees’ Knowledge of the Process
    Option B: Map the Process by Working Backwards from the Last Process Step
    Option C: Use Both Options A and B
    Difference 2: Transactional Employees Sometimes Do Not See a Process
    Difference 3: TAKT Time in Transactional Value Streams
    Difference 4: Work Queues vs. Piles of Inventory

    Transactional Data Is Different … Or Is It?

    Recording the Number of Employees in A Transactional Setting
    Documenting Cycle Time
    Documenting Expected (Estimated) Cycle Time
    Documenting Changeover Time
    Documenting Uptime or Reliability
    Documenting Availability of Equipment (AOE)
    Documenting Availability of Personnel (AOP )
    How to Document Tasks that Supervisors and Managers Demand Be Performed Immediately
    Documenting Defects
    Capturing Other Data
    Case Study in a Transactional Environment

    Capturing Travel Distances throughout the Value Stream

    Measuring Travel Distance in the Value Stream
    Measuring and Documenting the Travel Path of the Product
    Measuring and Documenting the Travel Path of Employees
    Physical Measurement of Travel
    Showing Travel Distance on A Value Stream Map
    Documenting Long Travel Distances within A Process Step
    Check for Hidden Travel In Transactional Processes

    Showing the “Value” from the Process Flow

    Measuring Total Cycle Time
    Interpreting Parallel or Subtask Cycle Times
    Measuring Process Lead Time
    Addressing Multiple Locations of Inventory as well as Parallel or Subtask Paths
    Measuring Value-Added Time: An Alternative to Total Cycle Time
    Measuring Total Travel Distance
    Documenting Total Work Content Time

    Capturing Communication Flow in a Production Setting

    Identify the Customer
    Identify the Supplier
    Identify the Control Point of Communication
    Capturing formal Communication
    How to Document Faxes and Telephone Calls
    Capturing Informal Communication
    Documenting Communication in Remanufacturing And Mro Settings
    the More Communication, the Better—or Is It?

    Capturing Communication Flow in a Transactional Environment

    Separating Communication Flow from Process Flow
    Similarities of Transactional Communication to Communication in Manufacturing
    Differences in Transactional Communication
    Mapping Customers Who Also Function As Suppliers and Control Points
    Mapping Multiple Control Points and Informal Control Points
    Mapping Multiple Control Points
    Mapping What Seem Like No Control Points but Are Informal Control Points
    Remember to Map What You See
    Case Study in a Transactional Environment

    Presenting the Current State Map to the Employees Involved

    The Purpose of Presenting the Map
    How to Present the Map: Keep an Open Mind
    Make Sure Your Audience Understands the Map
    Keep Your Presentation Brief and Focused
    Make Sure Your Audience Can Read the Map
    Individual Maps vs. One Large Display Map
    Digital Photos
    Digital Maps Created with Software
    Slide Presentations
    Explain the Icons You Used in Creating the Map
    Answer All Questions and Comments while You’re Presenting
    Change the Map as You Present It
    Document Opportunities for Additional Improvement Projects

    SECTION II: Future State: Designing and Mapping Your New (or Desired) Process

    Creating a Future State Map in a Manufacturing Environment

    Using Future-State Icons
    The Future State Map is A Blueprint for Change
    Brainstorm Using the Current State Map
    Know When to Start Fresh
    Draw the Future State Using the VSM Icons
    the Supermarket Icon
    the Withdrawal Kanban Icon
    the Production Kanban Icon
    the Sequenced Pull Ball Icon
    the Signal Kanban Icon
    Using a Pacemaker to Determine Process Speed
    Using Line-Balancing Charts to Determine if Flow is Balanced
    Using FIFO Lanes to Manage the Flow of the Value Stream
    Using Load Leveling to Manage Mix
    the Importance of Using Kaizen Bursts
    Case Study in a Manufacturing Environment
    Presenting the Future State Map

    Creating a Future State Map in a Transactional Environment

    Getting Started: Four Points to Keep in Mind
    Understand the Similarities and Differences between Production and Transactional Value Streams
    Recognize that Many Production Value Streams Appear in the Transactional World
    Address Employees’ Concerns Early
    Accept that Continuous Flow May Be Difficult to Achieve
    Employees Have Answers
    Ask Leading Questions
    Reinforce that there Is a Process to the Work Being Done
    How to Address the Problem of Availability of Personnel
    How to Address the Problem of Lack of Flow
    Focus on Showing Positive Changes
    Emphasize Reduction of Bureaucracy
    Show How Jobs Can Be Simplified
    Emphasize Work Flow and Reduced Handling of Work
    Using the Ideal State As A Tool
    Production vs. Transactional: the Path is the Same
    Case Studies in Transactional Environments

    SECTION III: Improvement State: Creating the Structure for Using Your Insights and Knowledge to Improve the Process

    Creating the Action Plan

    Identify the Process Loops
    Prioritize the Process Loops
    Tie Priority to Key Performance Indicators
    Establish Your Criteria for Prioritization
    Prioritize the Work within Each Loop
    Present Your Maps to the Workforce
    Present Your Maps to the Council 

    Implementing Change

    Assign A Value Stream Manager
    Attacking the Action Plan
    Using Action Plans for a Structured and Goal-Oriented Approach to Improvement
    Using Lean Progress Charts
    Speed and Accountability are Critical to Success
    Focus on Your Specific Goals


    It’s Continuous Improvement

    Quality Glossary



    Mark A. Nash