4th Edition

Marketing Recorded Music How Music Companies Brand and Market Artists

    518 Pages 213 B/W Illustrations
    by Focal Press

    518 Pages 213 B/W Illustrations
    by Focal Press

    This fourth edition of Marketing Recorded Music is the essential resource to help you understand how recorded music is professionally marketed. Updated to reflect the digital era, with new chapters on emerging media, streaming, and branding, this fourth edition also includes strategies for independent and unsigned artists. Fully revised to reflect international marketing issues, Marketing Recorded Music is accompanied by a companion website with additional online resources, including PowerPoints, quizzes, and lesson plans, making it the go-to manual for students, as well as aspiring and experienced professionals.

    List of Figures

    List of Tables

    List of Contributors


    Chapter 1 Introduction

    Why Sign to a Record Label

    Revenue Streams

    Music Everywhere

    The New Deal


    Touring and Merchandise

    Chapter 2 Marketing Concepts

    Selling Recorded Music

    What is Marketing

    The Marketing Mix


    Product Positioning

    The Product Lifecycle

    The Diffusion in Innovations and Adopter Categories

    Influences on Adoption

    Hedonic Responses to Music

    Pricing Strategies

    Chapter 3 Segmentation and Consumer Behavior

    Markets and Market Segmentation

    Segmentation Criteria

    Market Segments

    Geographic Segmentation

    Demographic Segmentation

    Multivariable Segmentation

    Psychographic Segmentation

    Personality Segmentation

    Behavioral Segmentation

    Product Usage

    Benefits Sought

    Brand Loyalty

    User Status

    The Millenial Generation

    Target Markets

    Consumer Behavior and Purchasing Decisions

    Needs and Motives

    Converting Browsers to Buyers

    High and Low Involvement Decision Making

    Decision Making Process

    Cognitive vs Emotional Decisions

    Chapter 4 Research


    Research and the Music Industry

    Types of Research

    Overarching Research Issues: Validity and Reliability

    The Research Process

    Online Survey Tools

    Disadvantages of Online Surveys

    Syndicated Research

    Custom Research Firms

    Chapter 5 Branding

    Branding Basics

    Successfully Building a Strong Brand

    Successfully Leveraging the Artist’s Brand

    Finding the Right Brand Partner

    Chapter 6 U.S. Industry Numbers

    Sales Trends

    Sales Trends and Configurations

    Annual Sales Trends

    Genre Trends

    Demographic Trends



    Market Share of the Majors and Indies

    Comparison of All and Current and Catalog Albums

    Catalog Sales

    Chapter 7 Label Operations

    Label Operations

    Getting Started as an Artist

    Business Affairs

    Artist and Repertoire: How Labels Pick and Develop Artists

    Discovering Artist

    Producers and A&R Scouts

    Attorneys and A&R

    Publishers and A&R

    Reality TV

    How Artist get on the A&R Radar

    Build a Social Media Presence

    Perform Perform Perform

    Give Away Free Music

    Make Professional Connections

    Fitting In

    Repertoire - A&R After The Signing

    Production Manager / Artist Development

    Creative Services


    Radio Promotion

    Sales and Marketing

    Digital Media / Marketing

    Independent Labels

    Chapter 8 The Marketing Plan

    Who Get the Plan

    The Classic Business School Marketing Plan

    What’s in the Record Company Marketing Plan

    Sections of the Plan


    The Importance of Street Date

    Chapter 9 Distribution and Sales


    Traditional Distribution

    The "Big 3" Consolidation and Competition

    Vertical Integration

    Major Distribution Organizations

    Independent Distributors - The Aggregators

    Music Supply to Retailers

    Retail Store Profiles

    Role of Physical Distribution

    How the Money Flows


    Top 10 Revenue Generators



    Retail Considerations

    Inventory Management

    Retail Promotion

    Trade Association

    Chapter 10 Streaming

    The Business of Streaming

    Market Share

    The Business Model

    How Playlists Work


    Apple Music



    Chapter 11 Radio

    The State of Radio

    The Value of Radio

    The Business

    The Radio Broadcasting Industry

    Radio Station Staffing

    Format Clock

    Radio Audiences

    Radio Formats

    Targets of Radio Formats

    What is Important to Programmers

    Ratings, Research and Terminology

    Radio Programming Research

    Satellite Radio

    HD Radio

    Internet Radio

    Getting Airplay

    Promotion and Airplay

    Radio Promotion

    History of Payola

    Getting a Song on the Radio

    Radio Promotion

    Satellite Radio Promotion

    Chapter 12 The Charts and Music Connect

    The History of Trade Magazines

    The Importance of Charts

    Creating the Charts

    Understanding the Billboard Charts


    Spotify Charts



    Apple Music


    Other Charts that Measure Popularity

    Additional Sources to Track Music

    A Deeper Dive into Nielsen


    Industry Terms

    A Look at Music Connect Data - The Charts

    The Billboard Top 200

    The Billboard Top 200 Song Consumption

    Distribution Market Share

    Genre Percentage

    DMA Percentage of Business

    Overall Sales by Format, Store Strata, and Product Configuration by Time Period

    Dashboard Look at Artist Single

    Dashboard Look at Artist Album

    Top Performing Markets by Album Rank

    Chapter 13 Publicity

    Publicity Defined


    Label vs. Indie Publicist

    Tools of the Publicist

    The Press Kit and EPK

    Photos and Videos

    Press Release

    The Biography

    Press Clippings

    Publicity and Branding

    The Publicity Plan

    Budgets for Money and Time

    Outlets for Publicity

    What to send

    Where to send it

    Television Appearances

    Charities and Public Services

    Bad Publicity

    Chapter 14 Digital Marketing

    Social Media - connecting with fans

    Social Media vs. Social Media Marketing

    Social Media Strategy

    Social Media Best Practices

    Best Practices by Platform

    How Social Media Algorithms Work

    Live Streaming

    Social Media Management and Listening Tools

    Popular Social Media Management Tools

    Content Marketing


    Mobile / Texting


    Email Marketing

    Chapter 15 Paid Media

    Paid Media Basics

    Consumer Media

    Target Audience

    Media Strategy

    Media Options



    Additional Paid Media Opportunities





    Direct Mail


    Trade Advertising

    How Advertising Effectiveness is Measured

    Advertising Purchase

    Chapter 16 Artist Support and Tour Sponsorship

    Artist Income

    Tour Support

    Tour Sponsorship

    Festival Sponsorship

    Products in the Music

    The Benefits

    Soundtracks and Compilations

    Product Extensions and Retail Exclusives

    Artists in the Virtual World

    Chapter 17 Merchandise

    Who, What, and When Merch Sells

    Why Does Tour Merchandise Sell

    Designing Merch That Sells

    What Fans Want….that we can make

    Merchandise Decisions that Impact Sales

    Designing Great Merch

    Event Merchandise Operations

    Decisions that Impact Profit and Sustainability

    Inventory management

    Forecast Demand and Revenue

    Merchandise Sales on Tour

    What Else Makes a Difference On Tour

    Selling Merchandise Online

    Increasing Average Order Size / Order Volume

    Leveraging Offer

    Pre-order Campaigns

    VIP Packages

    Protecting Brand Equity - Knock-offs and Unofficial Merchandise



    Tammy Donham is Associate Professor of Recording Industry Studies at Middle Tennessee State University. She frequently teaches online courses and was the recipient of the 2016 Outstanding Achievement in Instructional Technology Award. Donham is a graduate of Leadership Music (class of 2012), as well as a member of the Country Music Association. 

    Amy Sue Macy, Professor in the Department of Recording Industry at Middle Tennessee State University, received both her undergraduate degree in music education and her master's degree in business administration from Belmont University. For 15 years, she worked for various labels, including MTM, MCA, Sparrow Records, and the RCA Label Group.

    Clyde Philip Rolston is Professor of Music Business in the Mike Curb College of Entertainment and Music Business at Belmont University. Prior to joining the faculty at Belmont University, he was the Vice President of Marketing at Centaur Records, Inc., where he also engineered and produced many projects, including recordings by the Philadelphia Trio and the London Symphony Orchestra.

    "A definitive resource for teaching marketing and promotion in the music industry, professors should consider adding this as required text for their course"

    Terrance Tompkins, MBA, Program Coordinator/Assistant Professor, Hofstra University