For 2,000 years the most durable spanning structures have been built of masonry, and the surviving bridges of the Roman Empire have challenged master masons, architects and engineers to emulate and surpass them. Down the centuries, bridge-builders have been commissioned by monarchs, bishops, councils of state, cities, private individuals and, more recently, waterway and railway companies. The studies collected in this volume focus chiefly on the bridges, viaducts and aqueducts themselves and the actions of the designers and builders, but also encompass the political, economic and social contexts and outcomes of their creation. Famous bridges in Britain, Italy, France, Iran and the USA are all featured. Narratives of conception, design and construction predominate, but there are also papers on construction techniques, on the analysis of documentary sources, and on the continuing search by modern engineers for satisfactory scientific description of the strength and stability of arch bridges.
'The aim of Ashgate's twelve volume series is to bring together collections of important papers on particular topics from scholarly journals, conference proceedings and other hard-to-access sources. This is a wholly laudable objective. Some of the papers in the volume under review [The Civil Engineering of Canals and Railways before 1850] cannot be found even in abundantly-resourced academic libraries. The series opens up, directly or indirectly, debates over the nature of historical evidence which arise from the profoundly different approaches to the past of historians of technology, whose works are principally represented in these volumes, industrial archaeologists and social and economic historians.' Industrial Archaeology Review, Vol. XXI, No. 1
Contents: Introduction; Testing times for arches, B. Harvey; The Roman bridge-builder: some aspects of his work, N. A. F. Smith; The Pont du Gard and the aqueduct of NÃ®mes, N. A. F. Smith; Vitruvius and the elevated aqueducts, F. D. Prager; Resistance to technological innovation: the history of the pile driver through the 18th century, M. N. Boyer; Rebuilding the bridge at Albi, 1408-1410, M. N. Boyer; Le Pont du Rialto: un chantier public Ã Venise Ã la fin du XVIe siècle, D. Calabi et P. Morachiello; The Pul-i Khwaju in Isfahan: a combination of bridge, dam and water art, H. Luschey; Berwick-on-Tweed Bridge, J. Summerson; Hollow spandrels in arch bridges: a historical study, E. C. Ruddock; Pont-y-pridd: a critical examination of its history, E. I. Williams; William Edwards’s bridge at Pontypridd, E. C. Ruddock; The foundations of Hexham Bridge, E. C. Ruddock; Pulteney Bridge, Jean Manco; Two masonry bridges: II. Telford’s bridge at Over, J. Heyman and B. D. Threlfall; Arch bridges, J. B. B. Owen; Valley crossings on the Old Croton Aqueduct, L. D. Lankton; The Canton Viaduct, E. D. Galvin; The fall of Barentin Viaduct, 10 January 1846, D. Brooke; The safety of masonry arches, J. Heyman; Index.
From dams to cathedrals, from water supply to transport systems, and from land drainage to the design and construction of ever larger and more monumental buildings, the impact of civil engineering on human history has been immense. This series sets out to examine key aspects of its history, from antiquity to the early 20th century.
Studies in the History of Civil Engineering focuses on the following areas: the analysis of early structures to discover how ancient or medieval builders used the materials available to them, and the principles upon which they worked; the ideas and practices of design as employed by both engineers and architects; the development of new materials and techniques, from wooden trusses to cast iron and concrete; the investigation of the great engineering projects that began to burgeon with the 18th century, first in Britain, then elsewhere, underpinned by advances in science which provided a new theoretical framework upon which to base the engineering.
These volumes reveal the implications for the history of architecture of choices of material, technique and structure. They aim also to reflect the political and economic constraints which so often shaped what could be achieved, and the inter-relationship between the history of civil engineering and economic history: the engineering was both stimulated by, and made possible the spread of industrialization.
Not least, the series is concerned to examine the lives, attitudes and careers of the men who emerged to form the new profession of the engineer. Studies in the History of Civil Engineering comprises 12 volumes. Each focuses on a particular topic, edited by an expert in that field. They reprint a selection of papers which have proved of particular importance, and which exemplify the current state of knowledge and the historiography. Originally published in wide range of scholarly journals, conference proceedings and the like, many hard to consult, these papers are now reprinted together under hard covers, making them readily accessible, even for non-specialists. Each volume opens with a substantial new introduction by the editor, to assess the field and place the papers in their context, and is fully indexed. The series constitutes an authoritative reference library, not just for those interested in the history of civil engineering, but also those studying economic history and the history of science and, above all, of architecture.