2nd Edition

Mathematics Manual for Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators Basic Mathematics for Water and Wastewater Operators

By Frank R. Spellman Copyright 2014
    294 Pages 56 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    294 Pages
    by CRC Press

    To properly operate a waterworks or wastewater treatment plant and to pass the examination for a waterworks/wastewater operator’s license, it is necessary to know how to perform certain calculations. All operators, at all levels of licensure, need a basic understanding of arithmetic and problem-solving techniques to solve the problems they typically encounter in the workplace.

    Hailed on its first publication as a masterly account written in an engaging, highly readable, user-friendly style, the Mathematics Manual for Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators, Second Edition has been expanded and divided into three specialized texts that contain hundreds of worked examples presented in a step-by-step format. They are ideal for all levels of water treatment operators in training and practitioners studying for advanced licensure. In addition, they provide a handy desk reference and handheld guide for daily use in making operational math computations.

    This first volume, Basic Mathematics for Water and Wastewater Operators, introduces and reviews fundamental concepts critical to qualified operators. Presented at a basic level, this volume reviews fractions and decimals, rounding numbers, significant digits, raising numbers to powers, averages, proportions, conversion factors, flow and detention time, and the areas and volumes of different shapes. It also explains how to keep track of units of measurement (such as inches, feet, and gallons) during the calculations. After building a strong foundation based on theoretical math concepts, the text moves on to applied math—basic math concepts applied in solving practical problems for both water and wastewater operations. The material is presented using clear explanations in manageable portions to make learning quick and easy, and illustrative real-world problems are provided that correlate to modern practice and design.

    The 411 on Mathematics
    Dimensional Analysis
    Basic Units of Measurement and Conversions
    Setting the Stage
    Units of Measurement
    Conversion Factors
    Wire-to-Water Calculations
    Advanced Units of Measurement and Conversions

    Sequence of Operations
    Sequence of Operations Rules
    Sequence of Operations Examples

    Fractions, Decimals, and Percent

    Rounding and Significant Digits
    Rounding Numbers
    Determining Significant Figures

    Powers of Ten and Exponents

    Averages (Arithmetic Mean) and Median

    Solving for the Unknown
    Math Rules of Operation
    Solving Equations
    Checking the Answer
    Setting Up Equations
    Summary of Key Points

    Ratios and Proportions
    Working with Ratios and Proportions

    Electrical Calculations
    Electrical Circuits and Power
    Series DC Circuit Characteristics
    Parallel DC Circuits

    Circumference, Area, and Volume
    Perimeter and Circumference
    Area Examples
    Volume Examples

    Force, Pressure, Head, and Velocity Calculations
    Force and Pressure
    Force, Pressure, Head, and Velocity Examples

    Mass Balance and Measuring Plant Performance
    Mass Balance for Settling Tanks
    Mass Balance Using BOD Removal
    Measuring Plant Performance
    Plant Performance/Efficiency
    Unit Process Performance and Efficiency
    Percent Volatile Matter Reduction in Sludge

    Pumping Calculations
    Basic Water Hydraulics Calculations
    Basic Pumping Calculations
    Positive-Displacement Pumps
    Pumping Examples

    Water Source and Storage Calculations
    Water Source Calculations
    Water Storage
    Water Storage Calculations
    Copper Sulfate Dosing

    Water/Wastewater Laboratory Calculations
    Faucet Flow Estimation
    Service Line Flushing Time
    Composite Sampling Calculation (Proportioning Factor)
    Biochemical Oxygen Demand Calculations
    Moles and Molarity
    Settleability (Activated Biosolids Solids)
    Settleable Solids
    Biosolids Total Solids, Fixed Solids, and Volatile Solids
    Wastewater Suspended Solids and Volatile Suspended Solids
    Biosolids Volume Index and Biosolids Density Index
    Chemical Dosage Calculations
    Laboratory Examples

    Basic Mathemathics Practice Problems
    Basic Math Operations
    Fundamental Water/Wastewater Operations
    Appendix. Solutions to Chapter 17 Problems


    Frank R. Spellman, PhD , is a retired assistant professor of environmental health at Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia, and the author of more than 90 books covering topics ranging from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) to all areas of environmental science and occupational health. He consults on homeland security vulnerability assessments for critical infrastructures, including water/wastewater facilities, and conducts audits for Occupational Safety and Health Administration and Environmental Protection Agency inspections throughout the country. Dr. Spellman lectures on sewage treatment, water treatment, and homeland security, as well as on safety topics, throughout the country and teaches water/wastewater operator short courses at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg.