2nd Edition

# Mathematics Manual for Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators Basic Mathematics for Water and Wastewater Operators

By

## Frank R. Spellman

ISBN 9781482224252
Published May 7, 2014 by CRC Press
294 Pages 56 B/W Illustrations

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## Book Description

To properly operate a waterworks or wastewater treatment plant and to pass the examination for a waterworks/wastewater operator’s license, it is necessary to know how to perform certain calculations. All operators, at all levels of licensure, need a basic understanding of arithmetic and problem-solving techniques to solve the problems they typically encounter in the workplace.

Hailed on its first publication as a masterly account written in an engaging, highly readable, user-friendly style, the Mathematics Manual for Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators, Second Edition has been expanded and divided into three specialized texts that contain hundreds of worked examples presented in a step-by-step format. They are ideal for all levels of water treatment operators in training and practitioners studying for advanced licensure. In addition, they provide a handy desk reference and handheld guide for daily use in making operational math computations.

This first volume, Basic Mathematics for Water and Wastewater Operators, introduces and reviews fundamental concepts critical to qualified operators. Presented at a basic level, this volume reviews fractions and decimals, rounding numbers, significant digits, raising numbers to powers, averages, proportions, conversion factors, flow and detention time, and the areas and volumes of different shapes. It also explains how to keep track of units of measurement (such as inches, feet, and gallons) during the calculations. After building a strong foundation based on theoretical math concepts, the text moves on to applied math—basic math concepts applied in solving practical problems for both water and wastewater operations. The material is presented using clear explanations in manageable portions to make learning quick and easy, and illustrative real-world problems are provided that correlate to modern practice and design.

Introduction
The 411 on Mathematics
Dimensional Analysis
Basic Units of Measurement and Conversions
Setting the Stage
Units of Measurement
Conversion Factors
Conversions
Wire-to-Water Calculations
Advanced Units of Measurement and Conversions

Sequence of Operations
Sequence of Operations Rules
Sequence of Operations Examples

Fractions, Decimals, and Percent
Fractions
Decimals
Percent

Rounding and Significant Digits
Rounding Numbers
Determining Significant Figures

Powers of Ten and Exponents
Rules
Powers
Examples

Averages (Arithmetic Mean) and Median
Averages
Median

Solving for the Unknown
Math Rules of Operation
Equations
Axioms
Solving Equations
Setting Up Equations
Summary of Key Points

Ratios and Proportions
Ratios
Proportions
Working with Ratios and Proportions

Electrical Calculations
Electrical Circuits and Power
Series DC Circuit Characteristics
Parallel DC Circuits

Circumference, Area, and Volume
Perimeter and Circumference
Area
Volume
Area Examples
Volume Examples

Force, Pressure, Head, and Velocity Calculations
Force and Pressure
Velocity
Force, Pressure, Head, and Velocity Examples

Mass Balance and Measuring Plant Performance
Mass Balance for Settling Tanks
Mass Balance Using BOD Removal
Measuring Plant Performance
Plant Performance/Efficiency
Unit Process Performance and Efficiency
Percent Volatile Matter Reduction in Sludge

Pumping Calculations
Basic Water Hydraulics Calculations
Basic Pumping Calculations
Positive-Displacement Pumps
Pumping Examples

Water Source and Storage Calculations
Water Source Calculations
Water Storage
Water Storage Calculations
Copper Sulfate Dosing

Water/Wastewater Laboratory Calculations
Faucet Flow Estimation
Service Line Flushing Time
Composite Sampling Calculation (Proportioning Factor)
Biochemical Oxygen Demand Calculations
Moles and Molarity
Normality
Settleability (Activated Biosolids Solids)
Settleable Solids
Biosolids Total Solids, Fixed Solids, and Volatile Solids
Wastewater Suspended Solids and Volatile Suspended Solids
Biosolids Volume Index and Biosolids Density Index
Chemical Dosage Calculations
Laboratory Examples

Basic Mathemathics Practice Problems
Basic Math Operations
Fundamental Water/Wastewater Operations
Appendix. Solutions to Chapter 17 Problems
Index

...

## Author(s)

### Biography

Frank R. Spellman, PhD, is a retired assistant professor of environmental health at Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia, and the author of more than 90 books covering topics ranging from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) to all areas of environmental science and occupational health. He consults on homeland security vulnerability assessments for critical infrastructures, including water/wastewater facilities, and conducts audits for Occupational Safety and Health Administration and Environmental Protection Agency inspections throughout the country. Dr. Spellman lectures on sewage treatment, water treatment, and homeland security, as well as on safety topics, throughout the country and teaches water/wastewater operator short courses at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg.