Mathematics Manual for Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators: Water Treatment Operations : Math Concepts and Calculations book cover
2nd Edition

Mathematics Manual for Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators: Water Treatment Operations
Math Concepts and Calculations

ISBN 9781482224214
Published May 7, 2014 by CRC Press
247 Pages 8 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

To properly operate a waterworks or wastewater treatment plant and to pass the examination for a waterworks/wastewater operator’s license, it is necessary to know how to perform certain calculations. All operators, at all levels of licensure, need a basic understanding of arithmetic and problem-solving techniques to solve the problems they typically encounter in the workplace.

Hailed on its first publication as a masterly account written in an engaging, highly readable, user-friendly style, the Mathematics Manual for Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators, Second Edition has been expanded and divided into three specialized texts that contain hundreds of worked examples presented in a step-by-step format. They are ideal for all levels of water treatment operators in training and practitioners studying for advanced licensure. In addition, they provide a handy desk reference and handheld guide for daily use in making operational math computations.

This second volume, Water Treatment Operations: Math Concepts and Calculations, covers computations commonly used in water treatment with applied math problems specific to waterworks operations, allowing operators of specific unit processes to focus on their area of specialty. It explains calculations for pumping, water source and storage, coagulation and flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, chlorination, fluoridation, and water softening. The text presents math operations that progressively advance to higher, more practical applications of mathematical calculations, including math operations that operators at the highest level of licensure would be expected to know and perform. To ensure correlation to modern practice and design, this volume provides illustrative problems for commonly used waterworks treatment operations found in today’s treatment facilities.

Table of Contents

Pumping Calculations
Basic Water Hydraulics Calculations
Basic Pumping Calculations
Positive-Displacement Pumps

Water Source and Storage Calculations
Water Sources
Water Source Calculations
Water Storage
Water Storage Calculations
Copper Sulfate Dosing
Iron and Manganese Removal

Coagulation and Flocculation Calculations
Coagulation and Flocculation Calculations
Coagulation and Flocculation Practice Problems
Chemical Feeders
Chemical Feeder Calculations

Sedimentation Calculations
Tank Volume Calculations
Detention Time
Surface Overflow Rate
Mean Flow Velocity
Weir Loading (Overflow) Rate
Percent Settled Biosolids
Determining Lime Dosage (mg/L)
Determining Lime Dosage (lb/day)
Determining Lime Dosage (g/min)
Sedimentation Practice Problems

Filtration Calculations
Water Filtration
Flow Rate through a Filter
Filtration Rate
Unit Filter Run Volume
Backwash Rate
Volume of Backwash Water Required
Required Depth of Backwash Water Tank
Backwash Pumping Rate
Percent Product Water Used for Backwatering
Percent Mud Ball Volume
Filter Bed Expansion
Filter Loading Rate
Filter Medium Size
Mixed Media
Head Loss for Fixed Bed Flow
Head Loss through a Fluidized Bed
Horizontal Washwater Troughs
Filter Efficiency
Water Filtration Practice Problems
References and Recommended Reading

Water Chlorination Calculations
Chlorine Disinfection
Determining Chlorine Dosage (Feed Rate)
Calculating Chlorine Dose, Demand, and Residual
Breakpoint Chlorination Calculations
Calculating Dry Hypochlorite Feed Rate
Calculating Hypochlorite Solution Feed Rate
Calculating Percent Strength of Solutions
Chemical Use Calculations
Chlorination Math Practice Problems

Water Fluoridation
Fluoride Compounds
Optimal Fluoride Levels
Fluoridation Process Calculations
Fluoridation Math Practice Problems

Water Softening
Water Hardness
Determining Alkalinity
Determining Bicarbonate, Carbonate, and Hydroxide Alkalinity
Lime Dosage Calculation for Removal of Carbonate Hardness
Calculation for Removal of Noncarbonate Hardness
Recarbonation Calculation
Calculating Feed Rates
Ion Exchange Capacity
Water Treatment Capacity
Treatment Time Calculations (Until Regeneration Required)
Salt and Brine Required for Regeneration

Water Treatment Practice Calculations
Solutions to Chapter 9 Problems

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Frank R. Spellman, PhD, is a retired assistant professor of environmental health at Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia, and the author of more than 90 books covering topics ranging from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) to all areas of environmental science and occupational health. He consults on homeland security vulnerability assessments for critical infrastructures, including water/wastewater facilities, and conducts audits for Occupational Safety and Health Administration and Environmental Protection Agency inspections throughout the country. Dr. Spellman lectures on sewage treatment, water treatment, and homeland security, as well as on safety topics, throughout the country and teaches water/wastewater operator short courses at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg.