2nd Edition

Measurement and Evaluation in Physical Activity Applications Exercise Science, Physical Education, Coaching, Athletic Training, and Health

By Phillip Bishop Copyright 2019
    296 Pages 46 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    296 Pages 46 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    Measurement and Evaluation in Physical Activity Applications offers the most accessible, student-friendly introduction to the principles and practice of measurement in physical activity available. Fully revised and updated, the second edition provides students with a clear guide to the obstacles to good measurement, and how to apply the principles of good measurement to a range of physical activity disciplines.

    Spanning applications in exercise science, sports performance, physical education, sports coaching, athletic training, and physical activity and health, the book also includes chapters on the key principles underlying good measurement practice—validity, reliability, and objectivity—as well as an introduction to using statistics and qualitative measurement.

    Structured to reflect single-semester classes, and involving students at every stage through its rich pedagogy and accessibility, this is a crucial resource for introducing students to the principles of best practice in measurement and evaluation. It is the ideal learning aid for any students studying measurement, evaluation, or assessment in kinesiology, exercise science, sports coaching, physical education, athletic training, and health and fitness.


    1. Measurement and Evaluation for Your Personal and Professional Life

    The Value of Measurement and Evaluation

    Classifications in Measurement and Evaluation

    Measurement and Evaluation Applications in Life

    2. The Challenge of Good Measurement: Validity

    Measurement Error

    Naming Measurement Errors: Validity

    3. Additional Challenges of Good Measurement: Reliability and Objectivity



    4. Understanding Validity


    Types of Validity


    5. Evaluating Validity: Introduction to Statistics

    Measures of Central Tendency

    Distributions: Normal Distributions and the Normal Curve

    Appendix 5.A: Computing Standard Deviation with Excel

    6. Evaluating Validity: t-Tests and Correlations

    Evaluating Criterion Validity for Continuous Measures

    Types of t-Tests

    Correlations: Pearson Product-Moment Correlation

    Appendix 6.A: Predicting V̇O2max (mL • kg–1 • min–1) from Meters Run, Using Excel

    Appendix 6.B: Running a t-Test with Excel

    Appendix 6.C: Creating a Scatter Plot with Excel before Calculating Correlations

    Appendix 6.D: Calculating Correlations with Excel

    7. Evaluating Validity for Ordinal Measures, and Error Analysis

    Spearman's Correlation for Ordinal Numbers

    Bland-Altman Error Analysis

    Appendix 7.A: Creating a Trendline in Excel

    Appendix 7.B: Evaluating Criterion Validity with a Bland-Altman Analysis Using Excel

    8. Evaluating Validity of Criterion-Referenced Measures

    Criterion Measure

    Balance between Competent and Not Competent

    Another Statistic for Evaluating Validity for Criterion-Referenced Tests

    9. Understanding, Calculating, and Evaluating Reliability

    Evaluating Reliability

    Single Test Administration Methods

    Internal Consistency Reliability

    Evaluating the Reliability of Criterion-Referenced Measurements

    Appendix 9.A: Calculating the Intraclass Correlation Using Excel

    10. Understanding, Calculating, and Evaluating Objectivity

    Evaluating Objectivity

    11. Devising Measurements

    The Process of Devising a Test

    12. Evaluating New Measurements

    Estimating the Validity of a New Measurement

    Estimating Reliability

    Estimating Objectivity

    Additional Real-World Measurement and Evaluation Applications

    13. Numbers and Statistics in Measurement

    Understanding Numbers in Measurement

    Introduction to Numbers

    Normal Vs. Non-Normal (Non-Standard) Distributions

    Measures of Dispersion

    14. Standard Scores

    Percent-Based Standard Scores


    Checking a Measurement Technique

    15. Practical Inferential Statistics

    Correlations Measure Relationships Between Variables

    Complex Comparisons of Group Means


    16. Misusing Statistics

    Use of Non-Normal Samples

    Sudstituting Statistics for Clear Thinking


    17. Measuring in Quantitative Research

    Measurement Challenges in Physical Education, Sport, and Exercise Science Research

    Challenges in Quantitative Research

    Measurement Challenges in Clinical and Epidemiological Quantitative Research

    18. Qualitative Research and Reading Research

    Introduction to Qualitative Research

    Challenges in Qualitative Research

    Reading Research Papers

    19. Measuring Physical Fitness

    What Is Physical Fitness?

    Measuring Cardiorespiratory Fitness

    Measuring Muscular Endurance

    Measuring Muscular Strength

    Fitness Tests for the Elderly

    Fitness Tests for Children

    Fitness Tests for Differently Abled Individuals

    20. Measuring Body Composition and Range of Motion, and Administering Tests

    Measuring Body Composition

    Estimates of Body Composition

    Additional Body Composition Measures

    Measuring Range of Motion

    Administering Fitness and Performance Tests

    21. Measuring Exercise and Physical Activity

    Measuring Exercise

    Section Two: Measuring Physical Activity

    22. Measuring Health

    The Exercise Prescription

    Medical Status/Health History

    Fitness Level/Exercise History

    Preferences and Interests

    Exercise Goals

    23. Measuring Psychomotor Performance and Sports Skills

    Using Taxonomies in Human Performance Measurement

    Measuring Performance Based on the Psychomotor Taxonomy

    Issues in Measuring Human Performance

    Administration of Psychomotor Skills Tests

    24. Measuring Skills with Rubrics


    25. Measuring in Sports and Coaching

    Measurement Challenges in Competitive Sport

    Measuring in Coaching

    Measuring in Athletic Training

    26. Alternative Approaches to Measurement and Subjective Measurement

    Authentic Assessment

    Alternative Assessment Instruments

    Alternative Assessment Techniques

    27. Measuring the Affective Doman

    Rating Scales

    28. Measuring and Evaluating Knowledge

    Why Test and Grade?

    Planning for Testing and Grading

    Devising Cognitive Tests

    29. Creating and Evaluating Tests

    Types of Test Questions

    Item Analysis for Evaluating Tests

    30. Grading

    Options in Physical Education Grading

    Methods for Calculating Grades


    Phillip A. Bishop is Emeritus Professor of Exercise Science at the University of Alabama, USA where he taught for over 30 years. He has taught, researched, and lectured in about 31 states and about 30 foreign countries. He has conducted research for NASA, the US Airforce, the US Army, and the US Military Academy.