Measurement and Evaluation in Physical Activity Applications: Exercise Science, Physical Education, Coaching, Athletic Training, and Health, 2nd Edition (Paperback) book cover

Measurement and Evaluation in Physical Activity Applications

Exercise Science, Physical Education, Coaching, Athletic Training, and Health, 2nd Edition

By Phillip A. Bishop


278 pages | 46 B/W Illus.

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Measurement and Evaluation in Physical Activity Applications offers the most accessible, student-friendly introduction to the principles and practice of measurement in physical activity available. Fully revised and updated, the second edition provides students with a clear guide to the obstacles to good measurement, and how to apply the principles of good measurement to a range of physical activity disciplines.

Spanning applications in exercise science, sports performance, physical education, sports coaching, athletic training, and physical activity and health, the book also includes chapters on the key principles underlying good measurement practice—validity, reliability, and objectivity—as well as an introduction to using statistics and qualitative measurement.

Structured to reflect single-semester classes, and involving students at every stage through its rich pedagogy and accessibility, this is a crucial resource for introducing students to the principles of best practice in measurement and evaluation. It is the ideal learning aid for any students studying measurement, evaluation, or assessment in kinesiology, exercise science, sports coaching, physical education, athletic training, and health and fitness.

Table of Contents


1. Measurement and Evaluation for Your Personal and Professional Life

The Value of Measurement and Evaluation

Classifications in Measurement and Evaluation

Measurement and Evaluation Applications in Life

2. The Challenge of Good Measurement: Validity

Measurement Error

Naming Measurement Errors: Validity

3. Additional Challenges of Good Measurement: Reliability and Objectivity



4. Understanding Validity


Types of Validity


5. Evaluating Validity: Introduction to Statistics

Measures of Central Tendency

Distributions: Normal Distributions and the Normal Curve

Appendix 5.A: Computing Standard Deviation with Excel

6. Evaluating Validity: t-Tests and Correlations

Evaluating Criterion Validity for Continuous Measures

Types of t-Tests

Correlations: Pearson Product-Moment Correlation

Appendix 6.A: Predicting V̇O2max (mL • kg–1 • min–1) from Meters Run, Using Excel

Appendix 6.B: Running a t-Test with Excel

Appendix 6.C: Creating a Scatter Plot with Excel before Calculating Correlations

Appendix 6.D: Calculating Correlations with Excel

7. Evaluating Validity for Ordinal Measures, and Error Analysis

Spearman's Correlation for Ordinal Numbers

Bland-Altman Error Analysis

Appendix 7.A: Creating a Trendline in Excel

Appendix 7.B: Evaluating Criterion Validity with a Bland-Altman Analysis Using Excel

8. Evaluating Validity of Criterion-Referenced Measures

Criterion Measure

Balance between Competent and Not Competent

Another Statistic for Evaluating Validity for Criterion-Referenced Tests

9. Understanding, Calculating, and Evaluating Reliability

Evaluating Reliability

Single Test Administration Methods

Internal Consistency Reliability

Evaluating the Reliability of Criterion-Referenced Measurements

Appendix 9.A: Calculating the Intraclass Correlation Using Excel

10. Understanding, Calculating, and Evaluating Objectivity

Evaluating Objectivity

11. Devising Measurements

The Process of Devising a Test

12. Evaluating New Measurements

Estimating the Validity of a New Measurement

Estimating Reliability

Estimating Objectivity

Additional Real-World Measurement and Evaluation Applications

13. Numbers and Statistics in Measurement

Understanding Numbers in Measurement

Introduction to Numbers

Normal Vs. Non-Normal (Non-Standard) Distributions

Measures of Dispersion

14. Standard Scores

Percent-Based Standard Scores


Checking a Measurement Technique

15. Practical Inferential Statistics

Correlations Measure Relationships Between Variables

Complex Comparisons of Group Means


16. Misusing Statistics

Use of Non-Normal Samples

Sudstituting Statistics for Clear Thinking


17. Measuring in Quantitative Research

Measurement Challenges in Physical Education, Sport, and Exercise Science Research

Challenges in Quantitative Research

Measurement Challenges in Clinical and Epidemiological Quantitative Research

18. Qualitative Research and Reading Research

Introduction to Qualitative Research

Challenges in Qualitative Research

Reading Research Papers

19. Measuring Physical Fitness

What Is Physical Fitness?

Measuring Cardiorespiratory Fitness

Measuring Muscular Endurance

Measuring Muscular Strength

Fitness Tests for the Elderly

Fitness Tests for Children

Fitness Tests for Differently Abled Individuals

20. Measuring Body Composition and Range of Motion, and Administering Tests

Measuring Body Composition

Estimates of Body Composition

Additional Body Composition Measures

Measuring Range of Motion

Administering Fitness and Performance Tests

21. Measuring Exercise and Physical Activity

Measuring Exercise

Section Two: Measuring Physical Activity

22. Measuring Health

The Exercise Prescription

Medical Status/Health History

Fitness Level/Exercise History

Preferences and Interests

Exercise Goals

23. Measuring Psychomotor Performance and Sports Skills

Using Taxonomies in Human Performance Measurement

Measuring Performance Based on the Psychomotor Taxonomy

Issues in Measuring Human Performance

Administration of Psychomotor Skills Tests

24. Measuring Skills with Rubrics


25. Measuring in Sports and Coaching

Measurement Challenges in Competitive Sport

Measuring in Coaching

Measuring in Athletic Training

26. Alternative Approaches to Measurement and Subjective Measurement

Authentic Assessment

Alternative Assessment Instruments

Alternative Assessment Techniques

27. Measuring the Affective Doman

Rating Scales

28. Measuring and Evaluating Knowledge

Why Test and Grade?

Planning for Testing and Grading

Devising Cognitive Tests

29. Creating and Evaluating Tests

Types of Test Questions

Item Analysis for Evaluating Tests

30. Grading

Options in Physical Education Grading

Methods for Calculating Grades

About the Author

Phillip A. Bishop is Emeritus Professor of Exercise Science at the University of Alabama, USA where he taught for over 30 years. He has taught, researched, and lectured in about 31 states and about 30 foreign countries. He has conducted research for NASA, the US Airforce, the US Army, and the US Military Academy.

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