Measures of Interobserver Agreement and Reliability, Second Edition: 2nd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Measures of Interobserver Agreement and Reliability, Second Edition

By Mohamed M. Shoukri

© 2010 – CRC Press

291 pages | 2 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2010-12-14
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Measures of Interobserver Agreement and Reliability, Second Edition covers important issues related to the design and analysis of reliability and agreement studies. It examines factors affecting the degree of measurement errors in reliability generalization studies and characteristics influencing the process of diagnosing each subject in a reliability study. The book also illustrates the importance of blinding and random selection of subjects.

New to the Second Edition

  • New chapter that describes various models for methods comparison studies
  • New chapter on the analysis of reproducibility using the within-subjects coefficient of variation
  • Emphasis on the definition of the subjects’ and raters’ population as well as sample size determination

This edition continues to offer guidance on how to run sound reliability and agreement studies in clinical settings and other types of investigations. The author explores two ways of producing one pooled estimate of agreement from several centers: a fixed-effect approach and a random sample of centers using a simple meta-analytic approach. The text includes end-of-chapter exercises as well as a CD-ROM of data sets and SAS code.


"The new edition of this book includes popular and important new topics on assessing agreement and reliability … this book is very readable and it contains detailed examples and programming codes that can be easily followed and carried out by practicing statisticians. It is a valuable reference for someone who has limited background on assessing agreement and reliability."

—Huiman X. Barnhart, Journal of the American Statistical Association, September 2014, Vol. 109

"There are fairly substantial changes from the first edition. These include more focus on defining the subjects’ and raters’ populations, the loss of efficiency consequent on categorizing continuous scores, sample size determination, and pooling multicentre studies. Two new chapters are added, one on models for methods comparison studies, and one on the analysis of reproducibility using the within-subjects coefficient of variation. … Overall the volume provides an accessible introduction to the area, at a sufficient depth for most practitioners."

—David J. Hand, Mathematics Department, Imperial College London, UK, in International Statistical Review

Praise for the First Edition:

… an important strength of this text is that it brings together technical results on agreement statistics from a variety of sources, and it often provides information about the precision of the estimates and interval estimates … this text provides a handy compilation of statistical approaches to interobserver agreement … biostatisticians …are likely to find the summary and results to be helpful, and they will want to add this book to their collection.

—Patrick E. Shrout, New York University, Statistics in Medicine, Vol. 25, 2006

Mohamed Shoukri is well placed to write this book, as he is one of the foremost current researchers in this field. I recommend it.

Journal of the Royal Statistical Society

The well-written specialized book by Shoukri illustrates the meaning and importance of the measures of interobserver agreement with fun examples. The author is known for clear presentation.

Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation, Vol. 75, No. 4, April 2005

This book can be recommended…


Table of Contents

General Introduction


Probability and Its Application in Medical Research

Reliability for Continuous Scale Measurements


Models for Reliability Studies

Testing the Equality of Two Independent ICCs

Testing the Equality of Two Dependent ICCs

Large Sample Confidence Interval on ρ2

Raters Agreement for Continuous Scale Measurements

Estimating Agreement When Gold Standard Is Present

Several Faulty Methods and a Gold Standard

Sample Size Requirements for the Design of Reliability Study under One-Way ANOVA

Sample Size for Case 2

Estimation of ICC from Two-Way Random Effects Model with Replicated Measurements

Method-Comparison Studies


Literature Review

Bland and Altman’s Approach

Bradley–Blackwood Procedure

Regression Methods for Methods-Comparison

Correlated Measurement Errors

Assessing Agreement in Methods-Comparison Studies with Replicate Measurements


Population Coefficient of Variation as a Measure of Precision and Reproducibility


Inference from Single Normal Sample

Coefficient of Variation from the Gamma Distribution

Tests for Equality of Coefficients of Variation

Statistical Inference on Coefficient of Variation under the One-Way Random Effects Model

Maximum Likelihood Estimation

Variance Stabilizing Transformation

Estimating the WSCV When the Error Variance Is Not Common

Sample Size Estimation

Analysis of WSCF from Two Dependent Samples

Measures of Agreement for Dichotomous Outcomes


Indices of Adjusted Agreement

Cohen’s Kappa: Chance Corrected Measure of Agreement

Intraclass Kappa

The 2 × 2 Kappa in the Context of Association

Stratified Kappa

Conceptual Issues

Sample Size Requirements

Dependent Dichotomous Assessments

Adjusting for Covariates

Simultaneous Assessment of Two Binary Traits by Two Raters

Coefficients of Agreement for Multiple Rates and Multiple Categories


Multiple Categories and Two Raters

Agreement for Multiple Raters and Dichotomous Classification

Probability Models

Multiple Raters and Multiple Categories

Testing the Homogeneity of Kappa Statistic from Independent Studies



Exercises appear at the end of each chapter.

About the Author

Mohamed M. Shoukri is a principal scientist and the chairman of the Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology, and Scientific Computing at King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre. He is also an adjunct professor of biostatistics in the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry at the University of Western Ontario. Dr. Shoukri is a fellow of the Royal Statistical Society of London and an elected member of the International Statistical Institute.

About the Series

Chapman & Hall/CRC Biostatistics Series

Learn more…

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
MATHEMATICS / Probability & Statistics / General
MEDICAL / Pharmacology