Encyclopedic in breadth, yet practical and concise, Medical Biostatistics, Fourth Edition focuses on the statistical aspects ofmedicine with a medical perspective, showing the utility of biostatistics as a tool to manage many medical uncertainties. This edition includes more topics in order to fill gaps in the previous edition. Various topics have been enlarged and modified as per the new understanding of the subject.
Medical Uncertainties. Uncertainties in Health and Disease. Uncertainties in Medical Research. Uncertainties in Health Planning and Evaluation. Management of Uncertainties: About This Book. References. Exercises. Basics of Medical Studies. Study Protocol. Types of Medical Studies. Data Collection. Nonsampling Errors and Other Biases. References. Exercises. Sampling Methods. Sampling Concepts. Common Methods of Random Sampling. Some Other Methods of Sampling. References. Exercises. Designs for Observational Studies. Some Basic Concepts. Prospective Studies. Retrospective Studies. Cross-Sectional Studies. Comparative Performance of Prospective, Retrospective, and Cross-Sectional Studies. References. Exercises. Medical Experiments. Basic Features of Medical Experiments. Design of Experiments. Choice of Sampling of Units for Laboratory Experiments. References. Exercises. Clinical Trials. Therapeutic Trials. Issues in Clinical Trials. Trials Other than for Therapeutics. References. Exercises. Numerical Methods for Representing Variation. Types of Measurement. Tabular Presentation. Rates and Ratios. Central and Other Locations. Measuring Variability. References. Exercises. Presentation of Variation by Figures – Data Visualization. Graphs for Frequency Distribution. Pie, Bar, and Line Diagrams. Special Diagrams in Health and Medicine. Charts and Maps. References. Exercises. Some Quantitative Aspects of Medicine. Some Epidemiological Measures of Health and Disease. Reference Values. Measurement of Uncertainty: Probability. Validity of Medical Tests. Search for the Best Threshold of a Continuous Test: ROC Curve. References. Exercises. Clinimetrics and Evidence-Based Medicine. Indicators, Indexes, and Scores. Clinimetrics. Evidence-Based Medicine. References. Exercises. Measurement of Community Health. Measures of Fertility and Medical Demography. Indicators of Mortality. Measures of Morbidity. Indicators of Social and Mental Health. Composite Indexes of Health. References. Exercises. Confidence Intervals, Principles of Tests of Significance, and Sample Size. Sampling Distributions. Confidence Intervals. P-Values and Statistical Significance. Assessing Gaussian Pattern. Initial Debate on Statistical Significance. Sample Size Determination in Some Cases. References. Exercises. Inference from Proportions. One Qualitative Variable. Proportions in × Tables. Analysis of R×C Tables (Large n). Three-Way Tables. References. Exercises. Relative Risk and Odds Ratio. Relative and Attributable Risks (Large n). Odds Ratio. Stratified Analysis, Sample Size, and Meta-Analysis. References. Exercises. Inference from Means. Comparison of Means in One and Two Groups (Gaussian Conditions): Student t-Test. Comparison of Means in Three or More Groups (Gaussian Conditions): ANOVA F-Test. NonGaussian Conditions: Nonparametric Tests for Location. When Significant is not Significant. References. Exercises. Relationships: Quantitative Outcome. Some General Features of a Regression Setup. Linear Regression Models. Adequacy of a Regression. Some Issues in Linear Regression. Measuring the Strength of Quantitative Relationship. Assessment of Quantitative Agreement. References. Exercises. Relationships: Qualitative Dependent. Binary Dependent: Logistic Regression (Large n). Inference from Logistic Coefficients. Issues in Logistic Regression. Some Models for Qualitative Data and Generalizations. Strength of Relationship in Qualitative Variables. References. Exercises. Survival Analysis. Life Expectancy. Analysis of Survival Data. Issues in Survival Analysis. References. Exercises. Simultaneous Consideration of Several Variables. Scope of Multivariate Methods. Dependent and Independent Sets of Variables. Identification of Structure in the Observations. References. Exercises.Quality Considerations. Statistical Quality Control in Medical Care. Quality of Measurement Instruments. Quality of Statistical Models: Robustness. Quality of Data. References. Exercises. Statistical Fallacies. Problems with the Sample. Inadequate Analysis. Errors in Presentation of Findings. Misinterpretation. Brief Solution and Answer to the Selected Exercises. Appendix A. Statistical Softwares. Appendix B. Some Statistical Tables. Appendix C. Solution Illustrations Using R. Index