Adverse events in patients caused by medical management are a serious and grossly underreported public health problem. One patient in ten entering hospital will suffer an adverse event of impairment, disability or death. This book is a major comprehensive examination of the incidence and causes of adverse events. Using data obtained from hospitals within the United Kingdom, United States and other developed countries, it examines the risk factors leading to errors, the human and financial costs, and the scope to reduce errors. In particular, it focuses on the need for a critical reappraisal of undergraduate teaching and clinical tuition. All healthcare professionals throughout primary and secondary care, including clinicians, managers and policy makers, and patient and carer groups, can benefit from reading this book. It identifies possible solutions and how adverse events and medication errors can be reduced, resulting in improved patient care.
The two faces of medicine. The incidence of adverse events, adverse drug reactions and medication errors in hospitals. The incidence of adverse drug-induced events/reactions and medication errors in primary care. The stages at which drug reactions and medication errors occur in hospitals. Types and causes of adverse events and medication errors in hospitals. Risk factors predisposing to adverse events and medication errors. The cost of medical errors. Summary of the problem of injury induced by drugs and medication errors. Errors in healthcare: a major cause for concern. Changes in the UK litigation process as a potent tool to influence errors and complaints. Reducing medical errors. Implications of error reduction for undergraduate teaching. Have the undergraduate course failed to deliver students knowledgeable in pharmacology and therapeutics? Litigation and negligence. Implications for professional and continuing professional aspirations in healthcare. Future directions for professional expertise in healthcare: a conundrum. Conclusions. Appendices.