1st Edition

Membrane Technologies for Water Treatment Removal of Toxic Trace Elements with Emphasis on Arsenic, Fluoride and Uranium

Edited By Alberto Figoli, Jan Hoinkis, Jochen Bundschuh Copyright 2016
    340 Pages
    by CRC Press

    340 Pages
    by CRC Press

    Focuses on the application of membrane technologies in removing toxic metals\metalloids from water. Particular attention is devoted to the removal of arsenic, uranium, and fluoride. These compounds are all existing in the earth’s crust at levels between two and five thousands micrograms per kg (parts per million) on average and these compounds can be considered highly toxic to humans, who are exposed to them primarily from air, food and water. In order to comply with the new maximum contaminant level, numerous studies have been undertaken to improve established treatments or to develop novel treatment technologies for removing toxic metals from contaminated surface and groundwater. Among the technologies available, applicable for water treatment, membrane technology has been identified as a promising technology to remove such toxic metals from water. The book describes both pressure driven (traditional processes, such as Nanofiltration, Reverse Osmosis, Ultrafiltration,etc) and more advanced membrane processes (such as forward osmosis, membrane distillation, and membrane bio-reactors) employed in the application of interest. Key aspect of this book is to provide information on both the basics of membrane technologies and on the results depending on the type of technology employed.

    Part I Generality on arsenic, fluoride and uranium

    1. Fluoride, uranium and arsenic: occurrence, mobility, chemistry, human health impacts and concerns
    Alberto Figoli, Jochen Bundschuh & Jan Hoinkis
    1.1 Introduction
    1.2 Fluoride
    1.3 Uranium
    1.4 Arsenic

    Part II Traditional membrane processes

    2. Arsenic removal by low pressure-driven membrane operations
    Alfredo Cassano
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Microfiltration and ultrafiltration
    2.3 Arsenic removal by using microfiltration
    2.4 Arsenic removal by using ultrafiltration
    2.5 Conclusions 

    3. Fluoride and uranium removal by nanofiltration
    Stefan-André Schmidt, Tiziana Marino, Catherine Aresipathi, Shamim-Ahmed Deowan, Priyanath N. Pathak, Prasanta Kumar Mohaptra, Jan Hoinkis & Alberto Figoli
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 Common removal technologies
    3.3 Removal of dissolved fluoride and uranium by NF
    3.4 Conclusions and outlook

    4. The use of reverse osmosis (RO) for removal of arsenic, fluoride and uranium from drinking water
    Priyanka Mondal, Anh Thi Kim Tran & Bart Van der Bruggen
    4.1 Reverse osmosis: background and transport mechanism
    4.2 Types of RO membranes
    4.3 Membrane modules and their application
    4.4 Reverse osmosis for arsenic, fluoride and uranium removal from water
    4.5 Experimental study for removal of arsenic and fluoride from water by RO and loose RO membranes
    4.6 Conclusion

    5. Electro-membrane processes for the removal of trace toxic metal ions from water
    Svetlozar Velizarov, Adrian Oehmen, Maria Reis & João Crespo
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 Case studies
    5.3 Concluding remarks and future needs

    6. Fluoride, arsenic and uranium removal from water using adsorbent materials and integrated membrane systems
    Hacene Mahmoudi, Noreddine Ghaffour & Mattheus Goosen
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Fluoride
    6.3 Arsenic
    6.4 Uranium
    6.5 Concluding remarks and outlook

    Part III New trends in materials and process development

    7. Biosorbent materials and membranes for the treatment of toxic ions from water
    Mir Saeed Seyed Dorraji, Vahid Vatanpour & Abdolreza Mirmohseni
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Mechanism of metal biosorption and factors affecting its performance
    7.3 Equilibrium models for bioadsorption process
    7.4 Choice of metals for bioadsorption studies
    7.5 Biosorbent materials as a precursor in membrane preparation
    7.6 Hybrid of biosorption and membrane processes
    7.7 Biofiltration
    7.8 Bioadsorption of arsenic, uranium and fluoride
    7.9 Conclusion

    8. Liquid membrane separations of uranium
    Prasanta Kumar Mohapatra
    8.1 Introduction
    8.2 Liquid membranes
    8.3 Liquid membrane separations using different extractants
    8.4 Applications of liquid membranes for uranium recovery
    8.5 Conclusion and perspectives

    9. Supported liquid membrane technology in the removal and recovery of toxic ions from water
    Raffaele Molinari & Pietro Argurio
    9.1 Introduction
    9.2 Theory
    9.3 SLM application in the removal and recovery of toxic ions from water
    9.4 Conclusion

    10. Polymer inclusion membranes for the separation of uranium and arsenic from dilute aqueous solutions
    Alexander M. St John, Spas D. Kolev & Clàudia Fontàs
    10.1 Introduction
    10.2 Extraction and separation of solutes
    10.3 Separation of uranium
    10.4 Separation of arsenic
    10.5 Conclusion and outlook

    11. Removal of arsenic by nanofiltration: a case study on novel membrane materials
    Jianfeng Song, Xue-Mei Li, Claudia Ursino, Alberto Figoli & Tao He
    11.1 Introduction
    11.2 Nanofiltration (NF)
    11.3 Removal of arsenic by nanofiltration
    11.4 High performance NF membranes
    11.5 Cost evaluation
    11.6 Summary and outlook

    12. Fate and removal of trace metals/metalloids and fluoride from urban wastewater by membrane bioreactors: pilot and full-scale experiences
    Evina Katsou, Simos Malamis, Franco Cecchi & Francesco Fatone
    12.1 Introduction
    12.2 Myths and realities about MBR
    12.3 Occurrence, fate and removal of trace metals, metalloids and fluoride
    12.4 Conclusion

    13. Membrane distillation for the treatment of waters contaminated by arsenic, fluoride and uranium
    Alessandra Criscuoli & Maria Concetta Carnevale
    13.1 Introduction
    13.2 Traditional treatments
    13.3 Application of the membrane distillation technique
    13.4 Synthesis of the literature results
    13.5 Conclusions and remarks

    14. Removal of inorganic and organic trace contaminants by forward osmosis membranes
    Qianhong She & Chuyang Y. Tang
    14.1 Introduction
    14.2 Fundamentals of mass transport and solute rejection in FO
    14.3 Removal of organic contaminants by FO membranes
    14.4 Removal of inorganic contaminants by FO membranes
    14.5 Conclusions and outlook

    Subject index

    Book series page


    Born 1970 in La Spezia, Italy. Alberto Figoli got his PhD in Chemical Technologies at the Membrane Technology Group, University of Twente (The Netherlands), in 2001. Since 2001, he is working as permanent researcher at the Institute on Membrane Technology, ITM-CNR (Italy). He is expert in the field of membrane technology, particularly in membrane preparation and characterisation and membrane operations related to environmental issues.
    He attended more than 100 national and international conferences on membranes with oral and poster presentations and as chairman. He also presented lectures at courses on membrane operations as invited speaker. In 2006, he received the prize on Scientific Productivity "Food Packaging Research GSICA Awards", on the basis of the scientific work he carried out during the years on food packaging issues. He presented several book chapters on Membrane Preparation and Application and he is author of more than 60 scientific papers published in international journals and of a US patent on membrane technology application. Alberto is member of several associations that deal with membranes (EMS, GISCA) and is involved as scientific responsible for ITM-CNR in several national and international and Eurpean projects.

    "The book has chapters on all the major membrane technologies and their application to removing toxic trace elements, each chapter covering at least one of arsenic, fluoride and uranium. Taken together, the references for each chapter provide a very good resource for readers wanting to learn more about particular membrane technologies used in this field or a set of studies on toxic element removal."

    "Overall, the book will appeal particularly to membrane scientists looking to understand the scope for removal of toxic trace elements, especially arsenic, uranium and fluoride, and to scientists working on these elements looking to understand how membranes could be used to treat contaminated waters."

    Nadia Permogorov, Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, Reading UK. Printed in Johnson Matthey Technology Review, no. 60, 2016