Metabolic Regulation and Metabolic Engineering for Biofuel and Biochemical Production  book cover
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Metabolic Regulation and Metabolic Engineering for Biofuel and Biochemical Production




ISBN 9781498768375
Published April 25, 2017 by CRC Press
325 Pages 10 Color & 80 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

The global warming problem is becoming critical year by year, causing climate disaster all over the world, where it has been believed that the CO2 gas emitted from the factories and the burning of fossil fuels may be one of the reasons of global warming. Moreover, the global stock of fossil fuels is limited, and may run out soon within several tens of years. Although wind, geo-thermal, and tide energies have been considered as clean energy sources, those depend on the land or sea locations and subject to the climate change. Biofuel and biochemical production from renewable bio-resources has thus been paid recent attention from environmental protection and energy production points of view, where the current chemical and energy producing plants can be also utilized with slight modification.

The so-called 1st generation biofuels have been produced from corn starch and sugarcane in particular in USA and Brazil. However, this causes the problem of the so-called "food and energy issues" as the production scale increases. The 2nd generation biofuel production from lingo-cellulosic biomass or wastes has thus been paid recent attention. However, it requires energy intensive pretreatment for the degradation of lingo-cellulosic biomass, and the fermentation is slow due to low growth rate, and thus the productivity of biofuels and bio-chemicals is low. The 3rd generation biofuel production from photosynthetic organisms such as cyanobacteria and algae has been also paid attention, because such organisms can grow with only sun light and CO2 in the air, but the cell growth rate and thus the productivity of the fuels is significantly low.

The main part or core of such production processes is the fermentation by micro-organisms. In particular, it is critical to properly understand the cell metabolism followed by the efficient metabolic engineering. The book gives comprehensive explanation of the cell metabolism and the metabolic regulation mechanisms of a variety of micro-organisms. Then the efficient metabolic engineering approaches are explained to properly design the microbial cell factories for the efficient cell growth and biofuel and biochemical production.

Table of Contents

Background
Current status of global warming and action plan
Attempts to reduce energy consumption
Alternative to petroleum-based fuels
Bio-based energy generation for the reduced CO2 emission
Biofuel and biochemical production from biomass
Brief summary and the outlook of the book
References

Pretreatment of biomass
Introduction
Various pretreatments
Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF)
Consolidated biomass processing (CBP)
Concluding remarks
References

Transport of nutrients and carbon catabolite repression for the selective carbon sources
Introduction
Variety of regulation mechanisms
Porin proteins in the outer membrane and their regulation
Transport of carbohydrates and PTS
Carbohydrate uptake by various PTSs and without PTS
Nitrogen PTS
Carbon catabolite repression for the selective carbon source uptake.
CCR in other bacteria than E. coli
Concluding summary
References

Catabolite regulation of the main metabolism
Intorduction
Regulation of the glycolytic flux
Enzyme level regulation of the glycolysis
Regulation of pyruvate kinase
Transcriptional regulation of the glycolysis
Overflow metabolism and the oxidative stress regulation
Constraint on ATP production by respiration
Respiratory pathways and the competition with catabolic transport
Coordination of the metabolism by cAMP-Crp at higher catabolic rate
Carbon catabolite repression
Heteroginity of the cell population and CCR
Carbon storage regulation
Concluding remarks
References

Metabolic regulation in response to growth environment
Introduction
Nitorgen regulation
Sulfur regulation
Phosphate Regulation
Metal ion regulation and oxidative stress regulation
Redox state regulation
Acid shock response
Heat shock stress response
Cold shock response
Solvent stress regulation
Osmoregulation
Biofilm, motility by flagella, and quorum sensing
Concluding remarks
References

Metabolic engineering for the production of a variety of biofuels and biochemicals
Introduction
Organic acid production
Production of TCA cycle intermediates
Diol Fermentation
Other Organisc Acid Fermentation
Amino Acids and Related Fermentation
Isoprenoid, Polyketide, and Alkanoid Production
Biofuels Production
Tolerance to solvent stresses
Concluding remarks
References

Biofuel and biochemical production by photosynthetic organisms
Introduction
Candidate photosynthetic micro-organisms for biochemical and biofuel production
Metabolism of photosynthetic microorganisms
Metabolic engineering of photosynthetic microorganisms
Systems biology approach and modeling of the metabolism
Cultivation methods
Harvesting of algal biomass
Downstream processing
Concluding remarks
References

Systems biology approach and modeling
Introduction
Flux balance analysis and its extensions
Kinetic modeling and incorporation of metabolic regulation
Modeling of the main metabolism for catabolite regulation
Importance of the modeling for the main metabolic pathways
Metabolic regulation mechanisms to be incorporated in the kinetic model
Modeling for the metabolism under oxygen limitation
Concluding remarks

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