Metabolic Regulation and Metabolic Engineering for Biofuel and Biochemical Production: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Metabolic Regulation and Metabolic Engineering for Biofuel and Biochemical Production

1st Edition

By Kazuyuki Shimizu

CRC Press

325 pages | 10 Color Illus. | 80 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2017-04-25
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The global warming problem is becoming critical year by year, causing climate disaster all over the world, where it has been believed that the CO2 gas emitted from the factories and the burning of fossil fuels may be one of the reasons of global warming. Moreover, the global stock of fossil fuels is limited, and may run out soon within several tens of years. Although wind, geo-thermal, and tide energies have been considered as clean energy sources, those depend on the land or sea locations and subject to the climate change. Biofuel and biochemical production from renewable bio-resources has thus been paid recent attention from environmental protection and energy production points of view, where the current chemical and energy producing plants can be also utilized with slight modification.

The so-called 1st generation biofuels have been produced from corn starch and sugarcane in particular in USA and Brazil. However, this causes the problem of the so-called "food and energy issues" as the production scale increases. The 2nd generation biofuel production from lingo-cellulosic biomass or wastes has thus been paid recent attention. However, it requires energy intensive pretreatment for the degradation of lingo-cellulosic biomass, and the fermentation is slow due to low growth rate, and thus the productivity of biofuels and bio-chemicals is low. The 3rd generation biofuel production from photosynthetic organisms such as cyanobacteria and algae has been also paid attention, because such organisms can grow with only sun light and CO2 in the air, but the cell growth rate and thus the productivity of the fuels is significantly low.

The main part or core of such production processes is the fermentation by micro-organisms. In particular, it is critical to properly understand the cell metabolism followed by the efficient metabolic engineering. The book gives comprehensive explanation of the cell metabolism and the metabolic regulation mechanisms of a variety of micro-organisms. Then the efficient metabolic engineering approaches are explained to properly design the microbial cell factories for the efficient cell growth and biofuel and biochemical production.

Table of Contents


Current status of global warming and action plan

Attempts to reduce energy consumption

Alternative to petroleum-based fuels

Bio-based energy generation for the reduced CO2 emission

Biofuel and biochemical production from biomass

Brief summary and the outlook of the book


Pretreatment of biomass


Various pretreatments

Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF)

Consolidated biomass processing (CBP)

Concluding remarks


Transport of nutrients and carbon catabolite repression for the selective carbon sources


Variety of regulation mechanisms

Porin proteins in the outer membrane and their regulation

Transport of carbohydrates and PTS

Carbohydrate uptake by various PTSs and without PTS

Nitrogen PTS

Carbon catabolite repression for the selective carbon source uptake.

CCR in other bacteria than E. coli

Concluding summary


Catabolite regulation of the main metabolism


Regulation of the glycolytic flux

Enzyme level regulation of the glycolysis

Regulation of pyruvate kinase

Transcriptional regulation of the glycolysis

Overflow metabolism and the oxidative stress regulation

Constraint on ATP production by respiration

Respiratory pathways and the competition with catabolic transport

Coordination of the metabolism by cAMP-Crp at higher catabolic rate

Carbon catabolite repression

Heteroginity of the cell population and CCR

Carbon storage regulation

Concluding remarks


Metabolic regulation in response to growth environment


Nitorgen regulation

Sulfur regulation

Phosphate Regulation

Metal ion regulation and oxidative stress regulation

Redox state regulation

Acid shock response

Heat shock stress response

Cold shock response

Solvent stress regulation


Biofilm, motility by flagella, and quorum sensing

Concluding remarks


Metabolic engineering for the production of a variety of biofuels and biochemicals


Organic acid production

Production of TCA cycle intermediates

Diol Fermentation

Other Organisc Acid Fermentation

Amino Acids and Related Fermentation

Isoprenoid, Polyketide, and Alkanoid Production

Biofuels Production

Tolerance to solvent stresses

Concluding remarks


Biofuel and biochemical production by photosynthetic organisms


Candidate photosynthetic micro-organisms for biochemical and biofuel production

Metabolism of photosynthetic microorganisms

Metabolic engineering of photosynthetic microorganisms

Systems biology approach and modeling of the metabolism

Cultivation methods

Harvesting of algal biomass

Downstream processing

Concluding remarks


Systems biology approach and modeling


Flux balance analysis and its extensions

Kinetic modeling and incorporation of metabolic regulation

Modeling of the main metabolism for catabolite regulation

Importance of the modeling for the main metabolic pathways

Metabolic regulation mechanisms to be incorporated in the kinetic model

Modeling for the metabolism under oxygen limitation

Concluding remarks

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Biotechnology
SCIENCE / Life Sciences / Cytology
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Chemical & Biochemical
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Power Resources / Fossil Fuels