This book provides an in-depth discussion of various aspects of metal ecotoxicology. State-of-the-art information and techniques in areas ranging from metal behavior in surface waters to bioaccumulation kinetics and toxicokinetics to community effects are presented in a hierarchical arrangement. Specific topics discussed include metals in abiotic components of ecosystems, autecology (effects of metals relative to the individual or a single species), and metals in marine and freshwater systems in the context of synecology (species associated and interacting as a unit). This is an important book that will be useful to researchers, risk assessment consultants, regulatory personnel, and teachers and students.
THE INFLUENCE OF WATER CHEMISTRY ON TRACE METAL. BIOAVAILABILITY AND TOXICITY TO AQUATIC ORGANISMS. Effects of Solution Conditions on Metal Ion Speciation. Complexation Trends Among Metals: Underlying Chemical Factors. Relationships Between Atomic Properties and Metal Bioactivity. Surface Complexation Models. Uptake Model for Metals. Applications to Trace Metal-Biotic Interactions in an Acidic Lake. EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF METAL POLLUTION CONTROLS IN A SMELTER BY USING METALLOTHIONEIN AND OTHER BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSES IN FISH. Materials and Methods. Results. TOXIC METAL UPTAKE AND ESSENTIAL METAL REGULATION IN TERRESTRIAL INVERTEBRATES: A REVIEW. Metal Interactions in Intracellular Granules. Metal Interactions within the Soft Tissues. Metal Interactions in the Structural Tissues. Interactions in Trace Metal Assimilation. Metal Interactions in Inducible Proteins. ALLOMETRY OF METAL BIOACCUMULATION AND TOXICITY. Allometry. Allometry and Bioaccumulation. Accumulation Models. Allometry and Toxicity. METAL EFFECTS ON FISH BEHAVIOR - ADVANCES IN DETERMINING THE ECOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF RESPONSES. Behavioral Toxicology. Limitations in Experimental Approach. Improvements in Experimental Design in Behavioral Toxicology. Potential for Future Approaches. THE DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF METALS AND METALLOIDS IN FISH. Mechanisms of Effects of Developmental Toxicants. Developmental Toxicity of Selected Metals. Developmental Toxicity of Selected Metalloids. Metal-Metal and Metal-Metalloid Interactions. STOCHASTIC MODELS OF BIOACCUMULATION. One-Compartment Deterministic Model. One-Compartment Stochastic Model. Multicompartment Deterministic Models. Multicompartment Stochastic Model. One-Compartment Stochastic Model with Gamma Transit Times. One-Compartment Stochastic Model for Initial Convex Accumulation. Comparison of Results Between Accumulation Models. ANALYZING TOXICITY DATA USING STATISTICAL MODELS FOR TIME-TO-DEATH: AN INTRODUCTION. Data Sets. Survivor and Hazard Functions. Censoring. Nonparametric Tests for Equality of Survival Curves. Models for Survival Times. Estimation and Hypothesis Testing. Interpreting Parameter Estimates. Calculating Median Times-to-Death. Verifying Assumptions. Grouped Times-to-Death. Case Study: The Influence of Sex, Size, and Genotype on Arsenic Intoxication. Cox Proportional Hazards Model. Summary. TRACE METALS IN FRESHWATER SEDIMENTS: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE AND AN ASSESSMENT OF RESEARCH NEEDS. Part I: Literature Review of Trace Metals in Freshwater Sediments. Part II: Assessment of Research Needs Related to Sediment-Associated Trace Contaminants. Suggested Areas for Further Research. EFFECTS OF TRACE METALS ON AQUATIC BENTHOS. Theoretical Overview. External Influences on Metal Effects. Effects at Individual Levels of Organization. Population. Community. GENETIC FACTORS AND TOLERANCE ACQUISITION IN POPULATIONS EXPOSED TO METALS AND METALLOIDS. Tolerance Evolution in Contaminated Environments. IMPACT OF LOW CONCENTRATIONS OF TRIBUTYLTIN (TBT) ON MARINE ORGANISMS: A REVIEW. TBT in the Marine Environment. TBT in Marine Organisms. Toxicity to Marine Organisms (Excluding Mollusks). TBT Toxicity to Mollusks. Neogastropods (=Stenoglossans). COMMUNITY RESPONSES OF STREAM ORGANISMS TO HEAVY METALS: A REVIEW OF OBSERVATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL APPROACHES. Community Responses of Algae and Periphyton. Community Responses of Benthic Macroinvertebrates. Food Chain Transfer of Heavy Metals.