Methods for the Study of Deep-Sea Sediments, Their Functioning and Biodiversity: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Methods for the Study of Deep-Sea Sediments, Their Functioning and Biodiversity

1st Edition

Edited by Roberto Danovaro

CRC Press

458 pages | 158 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2009-12-21
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Description

For years scientists viewed the deep sea as calm, quiet, and undisturbed, with marine species existing in an ecologically stable and uniform environment. Recent discoveries have completely transformed that understanding and the deep sea is recognized as a complicated and dynamic environment with a rich diversity of marine species. Carefully designed to provide practical information in an easily accessible format, Methods for the Study of Deep-Sea Sediments, Their Functioning, and Biodiversity covers how to investigate the biological components through analysis of their biodiversity. It also provides the protocols and methodological details needed to investigate some aspects of the functional biodiversity of variables commonly utilized to describe and understand the drivers of deep-sea ecosystem functioning.

This volume contains detailed protocols for analyzing all benthic components from benthic viruses, prokaryotes, protozoa, foraminifera, to meio-, macro-, and megafauna. It includes step-by-step procedures, with additional notes on the crucial steps or possible difficulties arising from the analysis. Each chapter provides a brief introduction, a description of the sampling procedures and/or the sample treatment, and then the laboratory protocols, providing information on instrument setting and/or the solutions utilized. Each chapter also contains a visual scheme of the protocol for use during laboratory activities and for tracking each laboratory step. Linking information on biodiversity with the functioning of the marine ecosystems, the book covers all living components of the benthos. It provides practical information for anyone studying deep-sea habitats, their characteristics, functioning, and biodiversity.

Table of Contents

Deep-Sea Environmental Variables

Total Organic Matter and Water Contents, Grain Size, Bulk Density, Porosity, and Redox Potential of Sediments

Total Organic Carbon, Total Nitrogen, and Organic Phosphorus in Marine Sediments

Bioavailable Organic Matter: Total and Enzymatically Hydrolyzable Proteins, Carbohydrates, and Lipids

Photosynthetic Pigment Concentrations in Marine Sediments

Food Supply of Organic Matter to the Deep-Sea Floor

Fluxes of Labile Organic Matter to the Sea Floor

Total Carbohydrate Flux from Sediment Trap Samples

Total Protein Flux from Sediment Trap Samples

Total Lipid Flux from Sediment Trap Samples

Total DNA from Sediment Trap Samples

Phytopigment Flux from Sediment Trap Samples

Deep-Sea Benthic Life

Viral Abundance

Prokaryotic Abundance

Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization and Catalyzed Reporter Deposition for Benthic Prokaryote Assemblage Structure

Prokaryotic Abundance by Real-Time PCR

Abundance of Heterotrophic Benthic Protists

Abundance of Benthic Foraminifera

Abundance of Metazoan Meiofauna

Macrofaunal Abundance

Megafauna Abundance

Deep-Sea Benthic Diversity

Extraction and Purification of DNA from Marine Sediments Suitable for the Analysis of Prokaryotic Diversity

Archaeal Diversity Analysis Using 16S rDNA T-RFLP (Terminal-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms)

Benthic Bacterial Diversity Based on Cloning and Sequencing of 16S rRNA Genes

Benthic Bacterial Diversity Analysis Based on ARISA (Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis)

Meiofaunal Diversity

Macrofaunal and Megafaunal Diversity

Parameters for the Measurement of Marine Benthic Structural and Functional Diversity

Deep-Sea Benthic Functioning

Deep-Sea Experiments and Manipulations

Effect of Pressure on Enzymatic Activities, Viral Production, and Prokaryotic Heterotrophic Production

Organic Carbon Remineralization Rates in Marine Surface Sediments Derived from Shipboard Pore-Water Oxygen Microprofiles

Degradation and Turnover of Organic Matter in Marine Sediments

Extracellular DNA Extraction from Marine Sediments

Degradation of Extracellular DNA in Marine Sediments

Viral Production in Marine Sediments

Determination of Living/Dead and Active/Dormant Bacterial Fractions in Marine Sediments

Prokaryotic Biomass in Marine Sediments

Benthic Prokaryotic Heterotrophic Production Using the Leucine Incorporation Method

Prokaryotic Chemoautotrophic Production in Marine Sediments

Meiofaunal Biomass and Secondary Production

Macrofaunal and Megafaunal Biomass and Biochemical Composition

Protistan Grazing on Benthic Prokaryotes

Meiobenthos Predation on Prokaryotes

Analysis of Benthic Food Webs and Benthic Trophodynamics

Suggested Readings for the Study of Deep-Sea Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning

Suggested Readings

Index

About the Editor

Director Department of Marine Sciences, Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona, Italy

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI013000
SCIENCE / Chemistry / General
SCI039000
SCIENCE / Life Sciences / Biology / Marine Biology
SCI045000
SCIENCE / Life Sciences / Biology / Microbiology