1st Edition

Metrology and Diagnostic Techniques for Nanoelectronics

Edited By Zhiyong Ma, David G. Seiler Copyright 2016
    1454 Pages 249 Color & 452 B/W Illustrations
    by Jenny Stanford Publishing

    1454 Pages 249 Color & 452 B/W Illustrations
    by Jenny Stanford Publishing

    Nanoelectronics is changing the way the world communicates, and is transforming our daily lives. Continuing Moore’s law and miniaturization of low-power semiconductor chips with ever-increasing functionality have been relentlessly driving R&D of new devices, materials, and process capabilities to meet performance, power, and cost requirements. This book covers up-to-date advances in research and industry practices in nanometrology, critical for continuing technology scaling and product innovation. It holistically approaches the subject matter and addresses emerging and important topics in semiconductor R&D and manufacturing. It is a complete guide for metrology and diagnostic techniques essential for process technology, electronics packaging, and product development and debugging—a unique approach compared to other books. The authors are from academia, government labs, and industry and have vast experience and expertise in the topics presented. The book is intended for all those involved in IC manufacturing and nanoelectronics and for those studying nanoelectronics process and assembly technologies or working in device testing, characterization, and diagnostic techniques.


    Model-Based Scanning Electron Microscopy Critical-Dimension Metrology for 3D Nanostructures

    András E. Vladár

    X-Ray Metrology for Semiconductor Fabrication

    Daniel F. Sunday and R. Joseph Kline

    Advancements in Ellipsometric and Scatterometric Analysis

    Samuel O’Mullane, Dhairya Dixit, and Alain C. Diebold

    3D-AFM Measurements for Semiconductor Structures and Devices

    Ndubuisi G. Orji and Ronald G. Dixson

    SIMS Analysis on the Transistor Scale: Probing Composition and Dopants in Nonplanar, Confined 3D Volumes

    Andre A. Budrevich and Wilfried Vandervorst

    Transistor Strain Measurement Techniques and Their Applications

    Markus Kuhn, Stephen Cea, Jiong Zhang, Matthew Wormington, Thomas Nuytten, Ingrid De Wolf , Jian-Min Zuo, and Jean-Luc Rouviere

    Scanning Spreading Resistance Microscopy (SSRM): High-Resolution 2D and 3D Carrier Mapping of Semiconductor Nanostructures

    Andreas Schulze, Pierre Eyben, Thomas Hantschel, and Wilfried Vandervorst

    Microstructure Characterization of Nanoscale Materials and Interconnects

    J. K. Weiss, Jai Ganesh Kameswaran, Amith Darbal, Jiong Zhang, Di Xu, and Edgar F. Rauch

    Characterization of the Chemistry and Mechanical Properties of Interconnect Materials and Interfaces: Impact on Interconnect Reliability

    Ying Zhou and Han Li

    Characterization of Plasma Damage for Low-k Dielectric Films

    Hualiang Shi, Huai Huang, Ryan S. Smith, and Paul S. Ho

    Defect Characterization and Metrology

    Tuyen K. Tran

    3D Electron Tomography for Nanostructures

    Huolin L. Xin, Sai Bharadwaj Vishnubhotla, and Ruoqian Lin

    Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy of Semiconductor Nanostructures and Oxides

    Wu Zhou, Maria Varela, Juan-Carlos Idrobo, Sokrates T. Pantelides, and Stephen J. Pennycook

    Atom Probe Tomography of Semiconductor Nanostructures

    Thomas F. Kelly and Karen Henry


    Characterization and Metrology for Graphene Materials, Structures, and Devices

    Luigi Colombo, Alain Diebold, Cinzia Casiraghi, Moon Kim, Robert M. Wallace, and Archana Venugopal

    Characterization of Magnetic Nanostructures for Spin-Torque Memory Applications with Macro- and Microscale Ferromagnetic Resonance

    T. J. Silva, H. T. Nembach, J. M. Shaw, Brian Doyle, Kaan Oguz, Kevin O’brien, and Mark Doczy


    Band Alignment Measurement by Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy

    Nhan V. Nguyen


    Electrical Characterization of Nanoscale Transistors: Emphasis on Traps Associated with MOS Gate Stacks

    Xiao Sun and T. P. Ma

    Charge Pumping for Reliability Characterization and Testing of Nanoelectronic Devices

    Jason T. Ryan, Jason P. Campbell, Kin P. Cheung, and John S. Suehle

    Application of in situ Resistance and Nanocalorimetry Measurements for Nanoelectronic Thin-Film Materials

    Zichao Ye, Zhiyong Ma, and Leslie H. Allen


    Methodology and Challenges in Characterization of 3D Package Interconnection Materials and Processes

    Rajen Dias and Deepak Goyal

    3D Interconnect Characterization Using Raman Spectroscopy

    Ingrid De Wolf

    Advances in 3D Interconnect Characterization Techniques for Fault Isolation and Defect Imaging

    Wenbing Yun, Mario Pacheco, Sebastian Brand, Peter Czurratis, Matthias Petzold, Tatjana Djuric, Peter Hoffrogge, Mayue Xie, Deepak Goyal, Zhiyong Wang, Antonio Orozco, Fred C. Wellstood, and Rajen Dias


    Optical and Electrical Nanoprobing for Circuit Diagnostics

    Travis Eiles, Tom Tong and Edward I. Cole, Jr.

    Automated Tools and Methods for Debug and Diagnosis

    Srikanth Venkataraman


    Zhiyong Ma received his MS degree in materials engineering from Purdue University, Indiana, and a PhD in materials science and engineering from the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. He worked in thin-film metallization and processing at Digital Equipment Corporation and joined Intel’s Corporate Quality Network in 1995. Currently, he is vice president of the Technology and Manufacturing Group and director of Technology Development and Manufacturing Labs at Intel, responsible for the CQN lab network in support of silicon and assembly technology development and manufacturing, product fault diagnostics, and silicon and platform benchmarking, including strategic business planning, analytical technique development, and metrology roadmaps. Dr. Ma holds 8 patents in underbump metallization, strained silicon transistors, secured fuse technology, and silicon diagnostic techniques, has published more than 25 refereed papers, and has coauthored a book chapter on silicide technology. His research interests include thin-film kinetics, analytical techniques and metrology, and product fault diagnostics.

    David G. Seiler received his PhD and MS in physics from Purdue University and a BS in physics from Case Western Reserve University, Ohio. He is a fellow of the American Physical Society and a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. In 2000, he received a Distinguished Alumni Award from Purdue University's School of Science for his contributions to and achievements in semiconductors. He served as solid state physics program director in the Materials Research Division, National Science Foundation; spent a year’s sabbatical at the MIT Francis Bitter National Magnet Laboratory; and was a regents’ professor of physics at the University of North Texas. He joined the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in 1988 and served as program analyst in the program office for the director of NIST and as materials technology group leader in the Engineering Physics Division. Currently, he is chief of the division, which provides technical leadership in measurement science research, development, and standards essential to improving US economic competitiveness for advanced manufacturing. Dr. Seiler has been the chairperson and proceedings editor of 15 international conferences or workshops. He is the coeditor and coauthor of a chapter in Semiconductors and Semimetals (1992, Vol. 36) and a coauthor of a chapter in Handbook of Optics (1995, revised 2009). His current research focus is on understanding and advancing the metrology and characterization measurements needed for the future of nanoelectronics. The results of his research have been disseminated in over 200 publications and 100 talks throughout the world.