Micro & Nano-Engineering of Fuel Cells: 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Micro & Nano-Engineering of Fuel Cells

1st Edition

Edited by Dennis Y.C. Leung, Jin Xuan

CRC Press

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Description

Fuel cells are clean and efficient energy conversion devices expected to be the next generation power source. During more than 17 decades of research and development, various types of fuel cells have been developed with a view to meet the different energy demands and application requirements. Scientists have devoted a great deal of time and effort to the development and commercialization of fuel cells important for our daily lives. However, abundant issues, ranging from mechanistic study to system integration, still need to be figured out before massive applications can be used. Miniaturization is one of the main bottlenecks for the advancement and further development of fuel cells. Thus, research on miniaturization of fuel cells as well as understanding the micro and nano structural effect on fuel cell performance are necessary and of great interest to solve the challenges ahead.

In this book, internationally acclaimed experts illustrate how micro & nano engineering technology can be applied as a way of removing the restrictions presently faced by fuel cells both technically and theoretically. Through the twelve well designed chapters, major issues related to the miniaturization of different types of fuel cells are addressed. Theory focusing on micro and nano scale mechanics are outlined to better optimize the performance of fuel cells from laboratory scale to industrial scale. This book will be a good reference to those scientists and researchers interested in developing fuel cells through micro and nano scale engineering.

Table of Contents

About the book series

Editorial board

List of contributors

Preface

About the editors

1. Pore-scale water transport investigation for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells

Takemi Chikahisa & Yutaka Tabe

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Basics of cell performance and water management

1.3 Water transport in the cell channels

1.3.1 Channel types

1.3.2 Observation of water production, temperatures, and current density distributions

1.3.3 Characteristics of porous separators

1.4 Water transport in gas diffusion layers

1.4.1 Water transport with different anisotropic fiber directions of the GDL

1.4.2 Water transport simulation in GDLs with different wettability gradients

1.5 Water transport through micro-porous layers (MPL)

1.5.1 Effect of the MPL on the cell performance

1.5.2 Observation of the water distribution in the cell

1.5.3 Analysis of water transport through MPL

1.5.4 Mechanism for improving cell performance with an MPL

1.6 Transport phenomena and reactions in the catalyst layers

1.6.1 Introduction

1.6.2 Analysis model and formulation

1.6.3 Results of analysis and major parameters in CL affecting performance

1.7 Water transport in cold starts

1.7.1 Cold start characteristics and the effect of the start-up temperature

1.7.2 Observation of ice distribution and evaluation of the freezing mechanism

1.7.3 Strategies to improve cold start performance

1.8 Summary

2. Reconstruction of PEM fuel cell electrodes with micro- and nano-structures

Ulises Cano-Castillo & Romeli Barbosa-Pool

2.1 Introduction

2.1.1 The technology: complex operational features required

2.1.1.1 Nano-technology to the rescue?

2.1.1.2 Challenges: technical and economic goals still remain

2.2 Catalyst layers’ structure: a reason to reconstruct

2.2.1 Heterogeneous materials

2.2.2 First steps for the reconstruction of catalyst layers

2.2.2.1 Structural features matter

2.2.2.2 Scaling – a matter of perspectives

2.2.3 Stochastic reconstruction – scaling method

2.2.3.1 Statistical signatures

2.2.4 Let’s reconstruct

2.2.4.1 Features of reconstructed structures

2.2.4.2 Effective ohmic conductivity

2.2.4.3 CL voltage distribution, electric and ionic transport coefficients

2.2.5 Structural reconstruction: annealing route

2.2.5.1 Image processing for statistical realistic information

2.2.5.2 Structural reconstruction – annealing method

2.2.5.3 Statistical functions – two scales

2.2.5.4 Effective electric resistivity simulation from a reconstructed structure

2.3 New material support and new catalyst approaches

2.3.1 Carbon nanotubes “decorated” with platinum

2.3.1.1 Substantial differences for CNT structures

2.3.1.2 CNT considerations when inputting component properties

2.3.2 Core-shell-based catalyzers

2.3.2.1 General considerations for reconstruction

2.4 Concluding remarks

3. Multi-scale model techniques for PEMFC catalyst layers

Yu Xiao, Jinliang Yuan & Ming Hou

3.1 Introduction

3.1.1 Physical and chemical processes at different length and time scales

3.1.2 Needs for multi-scale study in PEMFCs

3.2 Models and simulation methods at different scales

3.2.1 Atomistic scale models at the catalyst surface

3.2.1.1 Dissociation and adsorption processes on the Pt surface

3.2.1.2 Reaction thermodynamics

3.2.2 Modeling methods at nano-/micro-scales

3.2.2.1 Molecular dynamics modeling method

3.2.2.2 Monte Carlo methods

3.2.3 Models at meso-scales

3.2.3.1 Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD)

3.2.3.2 Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM)

3.2.3.3 Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method

3.2.4 Simulation methods at macro-scales

3.3 Multi-scale model integration technique

3.3.1 Integration methods on atomistical scale to nano-scale

3.3.2 Microscopic CL structure simulation

3.3.3 Analyses of predicted CLs microscopic structures

3.3.3.1 Microscopic parameters evaluation

3.3.3.2 Primary pore structure analysis

3.3.4 Model validation

3.3.4.1 Pore size distribution

3.3.4.2 Pt particle size distribution

3.3.4.3 The average active Pt surface areas

3.3.5 Coupling electrochemical reactions in CLs

3.4 Challenges in multi-scale modeling for PEMFC CLs

3.4.1 The length scales

3.4.2 The time scales

3.4.3 The integration algorithms

3.5 Conclusions

4. Fabrication of electro-catalytic nano-particles and applications to proton exchange membrane fuel cells Maria Victoria Martínez Huerta & Gonzalo García

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Overview of the electro-catalytic reactions

4.2.1 Hydrogen oxidation reaction

4.2.2 H2/CO oxidation reaction

4.2.3 Methanol oxidation reaction

4.2.4 Oxygen reduction reaction

4.3 Novel nano-structures of platinum

4.3.1 State-of-the-art supported Pt catalysts

4.3.2 Surface structure of Pt catalysts

4.3.3 Synthesis and performance of Pt catalysts

4.4 Binary and ternary platinum-based catalysts

4.4.1 Electro-catalysts for CO and methanol oxidation reactions

4.4.2 Electro-catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction

4.4.3 Synthetic methods of binary/ternary catalysts

4.5 New electro-catalyst supports

4.6 Conclusions

5. Ordered mesoporous carbon-supported nano-platinum catalysts: application in direct methanol fuel cells

Parasuraman Selvam & Balaiah Kuppan

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Ordered mesoporous silicas

5.3 Ordered mesoporous carbons

5.3.1 Hard-template approach

5.3.2 Soft-template approach

5.4 Direct methanol fuel cell

5.5 Electrocatalysts for DMFC

5.5.1 Bulk platinum catalyst

5.5.2 Platinum alloy catalyst

5.5.3 Nano-platinum catalyst

5.5.4 Catalyst promoters

5.6 OMC-supported platinum catalyst

5.6.1 Pt/NCCR-41

5.6.2 Pt/CMK-3

5.7 Summary and conclusion

6. Modeling the coupled transport and reaction processes in a micro-solid-oxide fuel cell

Meng Ni

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Model development

6.2.1 Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model

6.2.2 Electrochemical model

6.2.3 Chemical model

6.3 Numerical methodologies

6.4 Results and discussion

6.4.1 Base case

6.4.2 Temperature effect

6.4.3 Operating potential effect

6.4.4 Effect of electrochemical oxidation rate of CO

6.5 Conclusions

7. Nano-structural effect on SOFC durability

YaoWang & Changrong Xia

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Aging mechanism of SOFC electrodes

7.2.1 Aging mechanism of the anodes

7.2.1.1 Grain coarsening

7.2.1.2 Redox cycling

7.2.1.3 Coking and sulfur poison

7.2.2 Aging mechanism of cathodes

7.3 Stability of nano-structured electrodes

7.3.1 Fabrication and electrochemical properties of nano-structured electrodes

7.3.2 Models about nano-structured effects on stability

7.3.2.1 Nano-size effects on isothermal grain growth

7.3.2.2 Nano-structured effects on durability against thermal cycle

7.4 Long-term performance of nano-structured electrodes

7.4.1 Anodes

7.4.1.1 Enhanced interfacial stabilities of nano-structured anodes

7.4.1.2 Durability of nano-structured anodes against redox cycle

7.4.1.3 Durability of nano-structured anodes against coking and sulfur poisoning

7.4.2 Cathodes

7.4.2.1 LSM

7.4.2.2 LSC

7.4.2.3 LSCF

7.4.2.4 SSC

7.5 Summary

8. Micro- and nano-technologies for microbial fuel cells

Hao Ren & Junseok Chae

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Electricity generation fundamental

8.2.1 Electron transfer of exoelectrogens

8.2.2 Voltage generation

8.2.3 Parameter for MFC characterization

8.2.3.1 Open circuit voltage (EOCV)

8.2.3.2 Areal/volumetric current density (imax,areal, imax,volumetric) and areal/volumetric power density (pmax,areal, pmax,volumetric)

8.2.3.3 Internal resistance (Ri) and areal resistivity (ri)

8.2.3.4 Efficiency – Coulombic efficiency (CE) and energy conversion efficiency (EE)

8.2.3.4.1 Coulombic efficiency (CE)

8.2.3.4.2 Energy conversion efficiency (EE)

8.2.3.5 Biofilm morphology

8.3 Prior art of miniaturized MFCs

8.4 Promises and future work of miniaturized MFCs

8.4.1 Promises

8.4.2 Future work

8.4.2.1 Further enhancing current and power density

8.4.2.2 Applying air-cathodes to replace potassium ferricyanide

8.4.2.3 Reducing the cost of MFCs

8.5 Conclusion

9. Microbial fuel cells: the microbes and materials

Keaton L. Lesnik & Hong Liu

9.1 Introduction

9.2 How microbial fuel cells work

9.3 Understanding exoelectrogens

9.3.1 Origins of microbe-electrode interactions

9.3.2 Extracellular electron transfer (EET) mechanisms

9.3.2.1 Redox shuttles/mediators

9.3.2.2 c-type cytochromes

9.3.2.3 Conductive pili

9.3.3 Interactions and implications

9.4 Anode materials and modifications

9.4.1 Carbon-based anode materials

9.4.2 Anode modifications

9.5 Cathode materials and catalysts

9.5.1 Cathode construction

9.5.2 Catalysts

9.5.3 Cathode modifications

9.5.4 Biocathodes

9.6 Membranes/separators

9.7 Summary

9.8 Outlook

10. Modeling and analysis of miniaturized packed-bed reactors for mobile devices powered by fuel cells

Srinivas Palanki & Nicholas D. Sylvester

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Reactor and fuel cell modeling

10.2.1 Design equations of the reactor

10.2.2 Design equations for the fuel cell stack

10.3 Applications

10.3.1 Methanol-based system

10.3.2 Ammonia-based system

10.4 Conclusions

11. Photocatalytic fuel cells

Michael K.H. Leung, BinWang, Li Li & Yiyi She

11.1 Introduction

11.2 PFC concept

11.2.1 Fuel cell

11.2.2 Photocatalysis

11.2.3 Photocatalytic fuel cell

11.3 PFC architecture and mechanisms

11.3.1 Cell configurations

11.3.2 Bifunctional photoanode

11.3.2.1 Photocatalyst

11.3.2.2 Substrate materials

11.3.2.3 Catalyst deposition methods

11.3.3 Cathode

11.4 Electrochemical kinetics

11.4.1 Current-voltage characteristics

11.4.1.1 Ideal thermodynamically predicted voltage

11.4.1.2 Activation losses

11.4.1.3 Ohmic losses

11.4.1.4 Concentration losses

11.4.2 Efficiency of a photocatalytic fuel cell

11.4.2.1 Pseudo-photovoltaic efficiency

11.4.2.2 External quantum efficiency

11.4.2.3 Internal quantum efficiency

11.4.2.4 Current doubling effect

11.5 PFC applications

11.5.1 Wastewater problems

11.5.2 Practical micro-fluidic photocatalytic fuel cell (MPFC) applications

11.6 Conclusion

12. Transport phenomena and reactions in micro-fluidic aluminum-air fuel cells

HuizhiWang, Dennis Y.C. Leung, Kwong-Yu Chan, Jin Xuan & Hao Zhang

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Mathematical model

12.2.1 Problem description

12.2.2 Cell hydrodynamics

12.2.3 Charge conservation

12.2.4 Ionic species transport

12.2.5 Electrode kinetics

12.2.5.1 Anode kinetics

12.2.5.2 Cathode kinetics

12.2.5.3 Expression of overpotentials

12.2.6 Boundary conditions

12.3 Numerical procedures

12.4 Results and discussion

12.4.1 Model validation

12.4.2 Hydrogen distribution

12.4.3 Velocity distribution

12.4.4 Species distribution

12.4.4.1 Single-phase flow

12.4.4.1.1 Ionic species concentration distributions

12.4.4.1.2 Migration contribution to transverse species transport

12.4.4.2 The effect of bubbles

12.4.5 Current density and potential distributions

12.5 Conclusions

Subject index

Book series page

About the Series

Sustainable Energy Developments

ISSN 2164-0645

Renewable energy sources and sustainable policy options, including energy efficiency and energy conservation, can provide long-term solutions for key-problems of industrialized, developing and transition countries by providing clean and domestically available energy and, at the same time, decreasing dependence on fossil fuel imports and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The book series will serve as a multi-disciplinary resource linking renewable energy with human society. The book series fulfils the rapidly growing worldwide interest in sustainable energy solutions. It covers all fields of renewable energy and their possible applications will be addressed not only from a technical point of view, but also from economic, financial, social, political, legislative and regulatory viewpoints.
The book series is considered to become a state-of-the-art source for a large group of readers comprising different stakeholders and professionals, including government and non-governmental organizations and institutions, international funding agencies, universities, public energy institutions, public health and other relevant institutions as well as to civil society.

Editorial Board
Jochen Bundschuh (Series Editor)
University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Australia & Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden
Morgan Bazilian Senior Advisor on Energy and Climate Change to the Director-General, United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO), Vienna, Austria
Maria da Graça Carvalho Member of the European Parliament, Brussels & professor at Instituto Superior Técnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal
Robert K. Dixon Leader, Climate and Chemicals, The Global Environment Facility, The World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes President of the European Renewable Energies Federation (EREF); Board Member of the German Renewable Energy Federation (BEE), Berlin, Germany
Veena Joshi Senior Advisor-Energy, Section Climate Change and Development, Embassy of Switzerland, New Delhi, India
Eric Martinot Senior Research Director, Institute for Sustainable Energy Policies (ISEP), Nakano, Tokyo & Tsinghua University, Tsinghua-BP Clean Energy Research and Education Center, Beijing, China

FIELDS COVERED• Access to clean energy • Bioenergy • Biofuels • Bio-inspired solar fuel production • Capacity building and communication strategies • Climate policy • Electric, hybrid plug-in, and hybrid vehicles • Energizing development • Energy autonomy and cities • Energy behavior • Energy conservation • Energy efficiency • Energy for the poor: The renewable options for rural electrification • Energy meteorology • Energy scenarios • Energy security • Energy storage • Energy-efficient buildings • Energy-efficient lighting • Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) • Financing energy efficiency • Fuel cells • Gender and energy • Geothermal energy for direct use (district heating, industry, agriculture, etc.) • Geothermal power generation • Green and greening computing • Green construction materials • Heat pumps • Hydrogen technologies • Labeling energy performance • Low energy architecture • Nano-energy • Renewable energy scenarios • Renewable energy strategies and policies • Renewable vehicle energy • Renewables energy for drinking water solutions • Renewables for poverty reduction • Renewables for small islands • Solar cars • Solar PV • Solar heating and cooling • Sustainable energy policies • Sustainable hydropower • Sustainable public transportation • Tidal energy • Water desalination using renewables • Wave power • Wind energy

EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD:
Suresh K. Aggarwal, Chicago, USA - Ishfaq Ahmad, Arlington, USA - Sergio M. Alcocer, Mexico - Said Al-Hallaj, Chicago, USA - Khaled A. Al-Sallal, Al-Ain, UAE - Hussain Al-Towaie, Aden, Yemen - Joel R. Anstrom, University Park, USA - Kalyan Annamalai, College Station, USA - Jaco Appelman, Delft, The Netherlands - Santiago Arnaltes, Madrid, Spain - François Avellan, Lausanne, Switzerland - AbuBakr S. Bahaj, Southampton, UK - Ronald Bailey, Chattanooga, USA - Ramesh C Bansal, Brisbane, Australia - Ruggero Bertani, Rome, Italy - Prosun Bhattacharya, Stockholm, Sweden - Peter Birkle, Cuernavaca, Mexico - John Boland, Adelaide, Australia - Frances Brazier, Delft, The Netherlands - Gary W. Brudvig, New Haven, USA - Jens Burgtorf, New Delhi, India - Kirk W. Cameron, Blacksburg, USA - Thameur Chaibi, Tunis, Tunisia - Shih Hung Chan, Taipei, Taiwan - D. Chandrashekharam, Mumbai, India - S.K. Jason Chang, Taipei, Taiwan - Shanta Chatterji, Mumbai, India - Falin Chen, Taipei, Taiwan - Siaw Kiang Chou, Singapore - Daniel Cohn, Cambridge, USA - Erik Dahlquist, Västerås, Sweden - Holger Dau, Berlin, Germany - Sudipta De, Kolkata, India - Gilberto De Martino Jannuzzi, Campinas, S.P., Brazil - Kristin Deason, Berlin, Germany & Washington, USA - Tom Denniss, Macquarie Park, Australia - Roland Dimai, Dornbirn, Austria - Gregory Dolan, Alexandria, USA - Claus Doll, Karlsruhe, Germany - Peter Droege, Newcastle, Australia - Gautam Dutt, Buenos Aires, Argentina - James Edmonds, College Park, USA - Adeola Ijeoma Eleri, Abuja, Nigeria - Ali Emadi, Chicago, USA - Hans-Josef Fell, Berlin, Germany - Bruno Francois, Paris, France - Andrew Frank, Davis, USA - Petra Fromme, Phoenix, USA - Chris Gearhart, Dearborn, USA - John Golbeck, University Park, USA - José Goldemberg, Sao Paulo, Brazil - Barbara Goodman, Golden, USA - James Gover, Flint, USA - Amelia Hadfield, Brussel, Belgium - Jan Hoinkis, Karlsruhe, Germany - Einar Hope, Bergen, Norway - Yoichi Hori, Tokyo, Japan - Ernst Huenges, Potsdam, Germany - Iqbal Husain, Akron, USA - Gerald W. Huttrer, Frisco, USA - Tetsunari Iida, Tokyo, Japan - Rainer Janssen, München, Germany - Ma Jiming, Beijing, P.R. China - Guðni Jóhannesson, Reykjavík, Island - Thomas B. Johansson, Lund, Sweden - Perry T. Jones, Knoxville, USA - Soteris Kalogirou, Limasol, Cyprus - Ghazi A. Karim, Calgary, Canada - Arun Kashyap, New York, USA - Pertti Kauranen, Tampere, Finland - Lawrence L. Kazmerski, Golden, USA - Claudia Kemfert, Berlin, Germany - Thomas Kempka, Potsdam, Germany - Madhu Khanna, Urbana, USA - Ånund Killingtveit, Trondheim, Norway - Rob Kool, Utrecht, The Netherlands - Israel Koren, Amherst, USA - Arun Kumar, Uttarakhand, India - Naveen Kumar, Delhi, India - Chung K. Law, Princeton, NJ, USA - Harry Lehmann, Dessau, Germany - Dennis Leung, Hong Kong - Xianguo Li, Waterloo,Canada - Søren Linderoth, Roskilde, Denmark - Hongtan Liu, Miami,  USA - Wolfgang Lubitz, Mülheim an der Ruhr, Germany - Thomas Ludwig, Hamburg,Germany - Wolfgang F. Lutz, Ter Aar, The Netherlands / Asunción, Paraguay - Thomas Lynge Jensen, Suva, Fiji Islands - Sébastien Martinet, Grenoble, France - Omar R. Masera, Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico - Chang Mei, Cambridge, MA, USA - Pietro Menga, Milan, Italy - Gerd Michelsen, Lüneburg, Germany - James Miller, Argonne, USA - Daniel Mosse, Pittsburgh, USA - Urs Muntwyler, Burgdorf, Switzerland - Jayant K. Nayak, Mumbai, India - Emily Nelson, Cleveland, USA - Kim Nielsen, Virum, Denmark - Galal Osman, Cairo, Egypt - Alessandro Palmieri, Jakarta, Indonesia - Jérôme Perrin, Guyancourt, France - Gianfranco Pistoia, Rome, Italy - Josep Puig, Barcelona, Spain - Kaushik Rajashekara, Indianapolis, USA - Wattanapong Rakwichian, Chiang Mai, Thailand - Sanjay Ranka, Gainesville, USA - Klaus Rave, Kiel, Germany / Brussels, Belgium - Athena Ronquillo-Ballesteros, Washington, USA - Jack Rosebro, Los Angeles, USA - Marc A. Rosen, Oshawa, ON, Canada - Harald N. Røstvik, Stavanger, Norway - Ladislaus Rybach, Zurich, Switzerland - Ambuj D. Sagar, New Delhi, India - Roberto Schaeffer, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - Frank Scholwin, Leipzig, Germany - Lisa Schipper, Bangkok, Thailand - Dietrich Schmidt, Kassel, Germany - Jamal Shrair, Budapest, Hungary - Semida Silveira, Stockholm, Sweden - Subhash C. Singhal, Richland, USA - Erik J. Spek, Newmarket, Canada - Gregory Stephanopoulos, Cambridge, MA, USA - Robert Stüssi, Lisboa, Portugal - Mario-César Suarez-Arriaga, Morelia, Mexico - Lawrence E. Susskind, Cambridge, MA, USA - Eoin Sweeney, Dublin, Ireland - Antoni Szumanowski, Warsaw, Poland - Geraldo Lúcio Tiago Filho, Minas Gerais, Brazil - Alberto Troccoli, Canberra, Australia - Eftihia Tzen, Pikermi, Greece - Hamdi Ucarol, Gebze/Kocaeli, Turkey - Veerle Vandeweerd, New York, USA - Peter F. Varadi, Chevy Chase, USA - Maria Wall, Lund, Sweden - Martin Wietschel, Karlsruhe, Germany - Sheldon S. Williamson, Montreal, Canada - Wolfgang Winkler, Hamburg, Germany - Ramon Wyss, Stockholm, Sweden - Jinyue Yan, Royal Stockholm, Sweden - Laurence T. Yang, Antigonish, Canada - Guillermo Zaragoza, Almería, Spain - Tim S. Zhao, Hong Kong

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI013060
SCIENCE / Chemistry / Industrial & Technical
TEC009010
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Chemical & Biochemical
TEC027000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Nanotechnology & MEMS
TEC031030
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Power Resources / Fossil Fuels