1st Edition

MicroCMOS Design

By Bang-Sup Song Copyright 2012
    434 Pages 478 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    434 Pages 478 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    MicroCMOS Design covers key analog design methodologies with an emphasis on analog systems that can be integrated into systems-on-chip (SoCs). Starting at the transistor level, this book introduces basic concepts in the design of system-level complementary metal-oxide semiconductors (CMOS). It uses practical examples to illustrate circuit construction so that readers can develop an intuitive understanding rather than just assimilate the usual conventional analytical knowledge.

    As SoCs become increasingly complex, analog/radio frequency (RF) system designers have to master both system- and transistor-level design aspects. They must understand abstract concepts associated with large components, such as analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and phase-locked loops (PLLs). To help readers along, this book discusses topics including:

    • Amplifier basics & design
    • Operational amplifier (Opamp)
    • Data converter basics
    • Nyquist-rate data converters
    • Oversampling data converters
    • High-resolution data converters
    • PLL basics
    • Frequency synthesis and clock recovery

    Focused more on design than analysis, this reference avoids lengthy equations and instead helps readers acquire a more hands-on mastery of the subject based on the application of core design concepts. Offering the needed perspective on the various design techniques for data converter and PLL design, coverage starts with abstract concepts—including discussion of bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) and MOS transistors—and builds up to an examination of the larger systems derived from microCMOS design.

    Amplifier Basics

    Driving-Point and Transfer Functions

    Frequency Response

    Stability Criteria

    Operational Amplifier (Opamp) in Negative Feedback

    Phase Margin

    Transient Response

    Feedback Amplifier

    Feedback Effect

    Left-Half or Right-Half Plane Zero

    Stability of Feedback Amplifiers

    Amplifier Design

    Abstract Low-Frequency Model of Transistors

    Driving-Point Resistances at Low Frequencies

    Resistance Reflection Rules

    Three Basic Amplifier Configurations

    Nine Amplifier Combinations

    Differential Pair

    Gain Boosting


    Voltage and Current Sources

    Operational Amplifier (Opamp)

    Small-Signal Model of the Operational Amplifier

    Opamp Frequency Compensation

    Phase Margin of Two-Stage Miller-Compensated Opamps

    Right-Half Plane Zero Cancellation in Two-Stage Opamps

    Transient Response of Opamp in Feedback

    Opamp Design Examples

    Common-Mode Feedback

    Offset Cancellation

    Opamp Input Capacitance

    Opamp Offset

    Opamp Noise

    Opamp Common-Mode Rejection

    Data Converter Basics

    Analog-to-Digital Converter Basics

    Sample and Hold

    Flash Analog-to-Digital Converter


    ADC Testing

    Averaging and Interpolation Techniques

    Low-Voltage Circuit Techniques

    Digital-to-Analog Converter Basics

    Nyquist-Rate Data Converters

    Analog-to-Digital Converter Architectures

    Slope-Type ADC

    Successive Approximation Register ADC

    Subranging and Multistep ADC

    Pipelined ADC

    Folding ADC

    Other ADCs

    Stand-Alone DACs

    Oversampling Data Converters

    Concept of Quantizer in Feedback

    ΔΣ Modulator

    High-Order Architectures

    Discrete-Time (DT) versus Continuous-Time (CT) Modulators

    Discrete-Time Modulator Design

    Band-Pass Modulator Design

    Continuous-Time Modulator Design

    Interpolative Oversampling DAC

    High-Resolution Data Converters

    Nonlinearity of the Analog-to-Digital Converter

    Evolution of High-Resolution ADC Design

    Digital Calibration of ADC

    Digital Background Calibration

    Digital Processing for Gain Nonlinearity

    Calibration by Zero-Forcing Least-Mean-Square Feedback

    Calibration of Time-Interleaving ADC

    Calibrated Continuous-Time (CT) ΔΣ Modulators

    Calibration of Current-Steering DAC

    Phase-Locked Loop Basics

    Phase Noise

    Phase-Locked Loop Operation

    Phase Noise Transfer Function

    Phase Detector

    Charge-Pumped Phase-Locked Loop

    PLL Bandwidth Constraints

    High-Q LC VCO

    Low-Q Ring-Oscillator VCO


    Frequency Synthesis and Clock Recovery

    Phase-Locked Loop Applications

    Digital PLL

    Frequency Synthesis

    Spur-Canceled Fractional-N Frequency Synthesizer

    Data Symbols

    Data Channel Equalization

    Clock and Data Recovery

    NRZ Phase Detector


    Bang-Sup Song, Ph.D., received a B.S. from Seoul National University, Korea, in 1973, an M.S. from Korea Advanced Institute of Science in 1975, and a Ph.D. from the University of California–Berkeley in 1983. From 1975 to 1978, he was a member of the research staff at the Agency for Defense Development, Korea. From 1983 to 1986, he was a member of the technical staff at AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey, and was also a visiting faculty member in the Department of Electrical Engineering, Rutgers University, New Jersey. From 1986 to 1999, Dr. Song was a professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and the Coordinated Science Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Urbana. In 1999, Dr. Song joined the faculty of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, where he is endowed with the position of Charles Lee Powell Chair Professor in Wireless Communication.

    Dr. Song received a Distinguished Technical Staff Award from AT&T Bell Laboratories in 1986, a Career Development Professor Award from Analog Devices in 1987, and a Xerox Senior Faculty Research Award from the University of Illinois in 1995. His Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) activities have been in the capacities of an associate editor and a program committee member for the IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems, International Solid-State Circuits Conference, and International Symposium on Circuits and Systems. Dr. Song is an IEEE fellow.