MicroCMOS Design  book cover
1st Edition

MicroCMOS Design

ISBN 9781138072367
Published March 29, 2017 by CRC Press
434 Pages 478 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

MicroCMOS Design covers key analog design methodologies with an emphasis on analog systems that can be integrated into systems-on-chip (SoCs). Starting at the transistor level, this book introduces basic concepts in the design of system-level complementary metal-oxide semiconductors (CMOS). It uses practical examples to illustrate circuit construction so that readers can develop an intuitive understanding rather than just assimilate the usual conventional analytical knowledge.

As SoCs become increasingly complex, analog/radio frequency (RF) system designers have to master both system- and transistor-level design aspects. They must understand abstract concepts associated with large components, such as analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and phase-locked loops (PLLs). To help readers along, this book discusses topics including:

  • Amplifier basics & design
  • Operational amplifier (Opamp)
  • Data converter basics
  • Nyquist-rate data converters
  • Oversampling data converters
  • High-resolution data converters
  • PLL basics
  • Frequency synthesis and clock recovery

Focused more on design than analysis, this reference avoids lengthy equations and instead helps readers acquire a more hands-on mastery of the subject based on the application of core design concepts. Offering the needed perspective on the various design techniques for data converter and PLL design, coverage starts with abstract concepts—including discussion of bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) and MOS transistors—and builds up to an examination of the larger systems derived from microCMOS design.

Table of Contents

Amplifier Basics

Driving-Point and Transfer Functions

Frequency Response

Stability Criteria

Operational Amplifier (Opamp) in Negative Feedback

Phase Margin

Transient Response

Feedback Amplifier

Feedback Effect

Left-Half or Right-Half Plane Zero

Stability of Feedback Amplifiers

Amplifier Design

Abstract Low-Frequency Model of Transistors

Driving-Point Resistances at Low Frequencies

Resistance Reflection Rules

Three Basic Amplifier Configurations

Nine Amplifier Combinations

Differential Pair

Gain Boosting


Voltage and Current Sources

Operational Amplifier (Opamp)

Small-Signal Model of the Operational Amplifier

Opamp Frequency Compensation

Phase Margin of Two-Stage Miller-Compensated Opamps

Right-Half Plane Zero Cancellation in Two-Stage Opamps

Transient Response of Opamp in Feedback

Opamp Design Examples

Common-Mode Feedback

Offset Cancellation

Opamp Input Capacitance

Opamp Offset

Opamp Noise

Opamp Common-Mode Rejection

Data Converter Basics

Analog-to-Digital Converter Basics

Sample and Hold

Flash Analog-to-Digital Converter


ADC Testing

Averaging and Interpolation Techniques

Low-Voltage Circuit Techniques

Digital-to-Analog Converter Basics

Nyquist-Rate Data Converters

Analog-to-Digital Converter Architectures

Slope-Type ADC

Successive Approximation Register ADC

Subranging and Multistep ADC

Pipelined ADC

Folding ADC

Other ADCs

Stand-Alone DACs

Oversampling Data Converters

Concept of Quantizer in Feedback

ΔΣ Modulator

High-Order Architectures

Discrete-Time (DT) versus Continuous-Time (CT) Modulators

Discrete-Time Modulator Design

Band-Pass Modulator Design

Continuous-Time Modulator Design

Interpolative Oversampling DAC

High-Resolution Data Converters

Nonlinearity of the Analog-to-Digital Converter

Evolution of High-Resolution ADC Design

Digital Calibration of ADC

Digital Background Calibration

Digital Processing for Gain Nonlinearity

Calibration by Zero-Forcing Least-Mean-Square Feedback

Calibration of Time-Interleaving ADC

Calibrated Continuous-Time (CT) ΔΣ Modulators

Calibration of Current-Steering DAC

Phase-Locked Loop Basics

Phase Noise

Phase-Locked Loop Operation

Phase Noise Transfer Function

Phase Detector

Charge-Pumped Phase-Locked Loop

PLL Bandwidth Constraints


Low-Q Ring-Oscillator VCO


Frequency Synthesis and Clock Recovery

Phase-Locked Loop Applications

Digital PLL

Frequency Synthesis

Spur-Canceled Fractional-N Frequency Synthesizer

Data Symbols

Data Channel Equalization

Clock and Data Recovery

NRZ Phase Detector

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Bang-Sup Song, Ph.D., received a B.S. from Seoul National University, Korea, in 1973, an M.S. from Korea Advanced Institute of Science in 1975, and a Ph.D. from the University of California–Berkeley in 1983. From 1975 to 1978, he was a member of the research staff at the Agency for Defense Development, Korea. From 1983 to 1986, he was a member of the technical staff at AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey, and was also a visiting faculty member in the Department of Electrical Engineering, Rutgers University, New Jersey. From 1986 to 1999, Dr. Song was a professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and the Coordinated Science Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Urbana. In 1999, Dr. Song joined the faculty of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, where he is endowed with the position of Charles Lee Powell Chair Professor in Wireless Communication.

Dr. Song received a Distinguished Technical Staff Award from AT&T Bell Laboratories in 1986, a Career Development Professor Award from Analog Devices in 1987, and a Xerox Senior Faculty Research Award from the University of Illinois in 1995. His Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) activities have been in the capacities of an associate editor and a program committee member for the IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems, International Solid-State Circuits Conference, and International Symposium on Circuits and Systems. Dr. Song is an IEEE fellow.