There has been enormous growth in the use of medical implants. However, in the case of hip replacement, loosening of metallic prosthesis fixed with polymethylmethylacrylate bone cement has resulted in painstaking revision surgery, which is a major problem for the patient, surgeon, and biomedical technology itself. In fact, global recognition of this problem led to the development of cementless fixation through the novel introduction of a bioactive hydroxyapatite (HAp) coating on biomedical-grade metallic implants. Since then, a wide variety of coating methods have evolved to make the HAp coatings on metallic implants more reliable.
Microplasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings discusses plasma spraying and other related HAp coating techniques, focusing on the pros and cons of macroplasma sprayed (MAPS)- and microplasma sprayed (MIPS)-HAp coatings. The book begins by explaining what a biomaterial really is, what the frequently used term biocompatibility stands for, and why it is so important for biomaterials to be biocompatible. It then:
- Examines the structural, chemical, macromechanical, micro/nanomechanical, and tribological properties and residual stress of HAp coatings
- Evaluates the efficacies under simulated body fluid immersion for MAPS- and MIPS-HAp coatings developed on biomedical implant-grade SS316L substrates
- Offers a comprehensive survey of state-of-the-art in vivo studies of MIPS-HAp coatings, presenting the results of pioneering research related to bone defect fixation
Shedding light on the future scope and possibilities of MIPS-HAp coatings, Microplasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings provides a valuable reference for students, researchers, and practitioners of biomedical engineering and materials science.
Table of Contents
Introduction of Biomaterials
Types of Biomaterials
Categories of Bioceramics
What Is Hydroxyapatite?
What Is Hydroxyapatite Coating?
Introduction of Bone: A Natural Biomaterial
Introduction of Teeth: A Natural Biomaterial
Surface Engineering of Bioinert Materials
Challenges to Develop Surface-Engineered Implants
Plasma Spraying and Other Related Coating Techniques
Plasma Spray Process
How Will Coating Form?
Plasma Sprayed HAp Coatings
Microplasma Spraying and Its Application
Microplasma Spraying: A Unique Manufacturing Technique
Other Coating Processes
Microplasma vs. Macroplasma Spraying
Hydroxyapatite Coating and Its Application
Background of the Problem and Basic Issues
Applications of HAp Coating
HAp Coating Developed by Different Methods
Microplasma and Macroplasma Sprayed HAp Coatings: Pros and Cons
Influence of Plasma Spraying Parameters on HAp Coating
Nanostructured HAp Coating
HAp Composite Coating
Plasma-Sprayed HAp Coating: Current Research Scenario
Structural and Chemical Properties of Hydroxyapatite Coating
Stoichiometry of HAp
Phase Analysis of MIPS-HAp Coatings
Spectroscopic Investigation of MIPS-HAp Coatings
Microstructure of MIPS-HAp Coating
Porosity Dependencies of Young’s Modulus and Hardness
Qualitative Model for Explanation of Anisotropy
Origin of Modeling on Pore Shape
In Vitro Studies of Hydroxyapatite Coatings
Synthesis of SBF in the Laboratory
SBF Immersion of MAPS-HAp Coatings on SS316L
SBF Immersion of MIPS-HAp Coatings on SS316L
Macromechanical Properties of Hydroxyapatite Coating
What Governs HAp Coating’s Performance?
Bonding Strength and Methods of Measurements
What Are General Guidelines to Improve Bonding Strength?
Other Important Parameters
Influence of Adhesive
Influence of Microstructure
Influence of Vacuum Heat Treatment
Role of Interfacial Stress
Role of Substrate Holding Arrangements
Failure Mode and Related Issues
Influence of Humidity
Influence of the Dissolution Behavior
Bonding Strength Measurements by Technologies Other Than ASTM
HAp Coatings Developed by Other Coating Processes
Bonding Strength of MIPS-HAp Coatings
MAPS-HAp vs. MIPS-HAp Coatings
Effect of Residual Stress
Shear Strength and Pushout Strength
Three-Point Bending Test
Micro/Nanomechanical Properties of Hydroxyapatite Coating
Basic Theory of Nanoindentation
Effect of SBF Immersion
Reliability Issues in Nanoindentation Data
Fracture Toughness of MIPS-HAp Coatings
Tribological Properties of Hydroxyapatite Coatings
What Does the Literature Say?
Nanoscratch Testing of MIPS-HAp Coatings at Lower Load
Nanoscratch Testing of MIPS-HAp Coating at Higher Load
Microscratch Testing of MIPS-HAp Coatings
Microscratch Testing of MIPS-HAp Coatings before and after the SBF Immersion
Residual Stress of Hydroxyapatite Coating
Origin of Residual Stress
Identification of Residual Stress and Importance
Factors Affecting Residual Stress
Common Methodologies to Evaluate Residual Stress
Relative Advantages and Disadvantages
Role of Higher Plasmatron Power and Secondary Gas
Role of the Substrate Temperature
Nature of the Residual Stress State
Role of Other Basic Process Parameters
Residual Stress of Thermal Sprayed and Sol-Gel-Derived HAp Coatings
Residual Stress of MIPS-HAp Coatings
In Vivo Studies of Microplasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coating
Future Scope and Possibilities
MIPS-HAp Coating on Complex and Contoured Implants
MIPS Coating of Other Calcium Phosphates (TCP, BCP, etc.)
MIPS-HAp Coatings on C/C Composites
Second Phase Incorporation in HAp Coatings
Nanostructured Plasma Sprayed HAp Coating
Arjun Dey is a scientist in the Thermal Systems Group at the Indian Space Research Organisation Satellite Centre, Bangalore. Dr. Dey was previously at the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata, India. He holds a bachelor's degree from Biju Patnaik University of Technology, Orissa, India, and master's and doctoral degrees from the Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Howrah (formerly Bengal Engineering and Science University). Highly decorated and widely published, Dr. Dey serves as a reviewer for many national and international journals. He recently coauthored the CRC Press book Nanoindentation of Brittle Solids with Dr. Mukhopadhyay.
Anoop Kumar Mukhopadhyay is a chief scientist and head of the Advanced Mechanical and Materials Characterization Division of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute (CGCRI), Kolkata, India. Prior to joining CSIR-CGCRI, Dr. Mukhopadhyay initiated in India the research work on the evaluation, analysis, and microstructure mechanical properties correlation of non-oxide ceramics for high-temperature applications. He holds a bachelor's degree from Kalyani University, India, and master's and Ph.D degrees from Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India. Highly decorated and widely published, Dr. Mukhopadhyay holds seven patents, serves on the editorial board of Soft Nanoscience Letters, and recently coauthored the CRC Press book Nanoindentation of Brittle Solids with Dr. Dey.
Featured Author Profiles
"This unique book on development of microplasma sprayed HAp coating has been organized in a very compact yet comprehensive manner. This book also highlights the horizons of future research that invites the attention of global community, particularly those in bio-medical materials and bio-medical engineering field. This book will surely act as a very useful reference material for both graduate/post-graduate students and researchers in the field of biomedical, orthopedic and manufacturing engineering and research. I truly believ that this is the first ever effort which covers almost all the broad subject area of "HAp coatings developed by microplasma spraying including those of the more commercially accepted plasma spraying method" for developing HAp coated implants and prosthesis."
—Bikramjit Basu, Professor, Materials Research Center, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, Associate Faculty, Interdisciplinary Bio-Engineering Program, IISc, Bangalore, Adjunct Professor, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, India
"The organization of topics is done very methodically covering all the related and even peripheral issues. The subject is covered well with thorough details and critical views. The book would be a good reference point for researchers working on HA based coatings for orthopedic application."
—Debrupa Lahiri, IIT Roorkee, India
"The lucid presentation style makes it easy for the new entrant to be gradually initiated into the field without any shock or jerk. What is most striking and appealing about the book is that even after starting from basic simple premises it has very capably provided vast and in-depth discussion to an extent that would be very lucrative for advanced researchers from both Govt. and private research organizations in the emerging field of biomedical applications of ceramic coatings."
—Dr. Satyam Priyadarshy, Founder, Reignite strategy