Microplasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings: 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Microplasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings

1st Edition

By Arjun Dey, Anoop Kumar Mukhopadhyay

CRC Press

272 pages

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There has been enormous growth in the use of medical implants. However, in the case of hip replacement, loosening of metallic prosthesis fixed with polymethylmethylacrylate bone cement has resulted in painstaking revision surgery, which is a major problem for the patient, surgeon, and biomedical technology itself. In fact, global recognition of this problem led to the development of cementless fixation through the novel introduction of a bioactive hydroxyapatite (HAp) coating on biomedical-grade metallic implants. Since then, a wide variety of coating methods have evolved to make the HAp coatings on metallic implants more reliable.

Microplasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings discusses plasma spraying and other related HAp coating techniques,focusing on the pros and cons of macroplasma sprayed (MAPS)- and microplasma sprayed (MIPS)-HAp coatings. The book begins by explaining what a biomaterial really is, what the frequently used term biocompatibility stands for, and why it is so important for biomaterials to be biocompatible. It then:

  • Examines the structural, chemical, macromechanical, micro/nanomechanical, and tribological properties and residual stress of HAp coatings
  • Evaluates the efficacies under simulated body fluid immersion for MAPS- and MIPS-HAp coatings developed on biomedical implant-grade SS316L substrates
  • Offers a comprehensive survey of state-of-the-art in vivo studies of MIPS-HAp coatings, presenting the results of pioneering research related to bone defect fixation

Shedding light on the future scope and possibilities of MIPS-HAp coatings, Microplasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings provides a valuable reference for students, researchers, and practitioners of biomedical engineering and materials science.


"This unique book on development of microplasma sprayed HAp coating has been organized in a very compact yet comprehensive manner. This book also highlights the horizons of future research that invites the attention of global community, particularly those in bio-medical materials and bio-medical engineering field. This book will surely act as a very useful reference material for both graduate/post-graduate students and researchers in the field of biomedical, orthopedic and manufacturing engineering and research. I truly believ that this is the first ever effort which covers almost all the broad subject area of "HAp coatings developed by microplasma spraying including those of the more commercially accepted plasma spraying method" for developing HAp coated implants and prosthesis."

—Bikramjit Basu, Professor, Materials Research Center, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, Associate Faculty, Interdisciplinary Bio-Engineering Program, IISc, Bangalore, Adjunct Professor, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, India

"The organizationof topics is done very methodically covering all the related and even peripheral issues. The subject is covered well with thorough details and critical views. The book would be a good reference point for researchers working on HA based coatings for orthopedic application."

—Debrupa Lahiri, IIT Roorkee, India

"The lucid presentation style makes it easy for the new entrant to be gradually initiated into the field without any shock or jerk. What is most striking and appealing about the book is that even after starting from basic simple premises it has very capably provided vast and in-depth discussion to an extent that would be very lucrative for advanced researchers from both Govt. and private research organizations in the emerging field of biomedical applications of ceramic coatings."

—Dr. Satyam Priyadarshy, Founder, Reignite strategy

Table of Contents


Introduction of Biomaterials

Types of Biomaterials

Categories of Bioceramics

What Is Hydroxyapatite?

What Is Hydroxyapatite Coating?

Introduction of Bone: A Natural Biomaterial

Introduction of Teeth: A Natural Biomaterial

Surface Engineering of Bioinert Materials

Challenges to Develop Surface-Engineered Implants



Plasma Spraying and Other Related Coating Techniques

Plasma Spray Process

How Will Coating Form?

Plasma Sprayed HAp Coatings

Microplasma Spraying

Microplasma Spraying and Its Application

Microplasma Spraying: A Unique Manufacturing Technique

Other Coating Processes

Microplasma vs. Macroplasma Spraying



Hydroxyapatite Coating and Its Application

Background of the Problem and Basic Issues

Applications of HAp Coating

HAp Coating Developed by Different Methods

Microplasma and Macroplasma Sprayed HAp Coatings: Pros and Cons

Influence of Plasma Spraying Parameters on HAp Coating

Nanostructured HAp Coating

HAp Composite Coating

Plasma-Sprayed HAp Coating: Current Research Scenario



Structural and Chemical Properties of Hydroxyapatite Coating


Stoichiometry of HAp

Phase Analysis of MIPS-HAp Coatings

Spectroscopic Investigation of MIPS-HAp Coatings

Microstructure of MIPS-HAp Coating

Porosity Dependencies of Young’s Modulus and Hardness

Qualitative Model for Explanation of Anisotropy

Origin of Modeling on Pore Shape



In Vitro Studies of Hydroxyapatite Coatings


Literature Status

Synthesis of SBF in the Laboratory

SBF Immersion of MAPS-HAp Coatings on SS316L

SBF Immersion of MIPS-HAp Coatings on SS316L



Macromechanical Properties of Hydroxyapatite Coating


What Governs HAp Coating’s Performance?

Interface Issues

Bonding Strength and Methods of Measurements

What Are General Guidelines to Improve Bonding Strength?

Other Important Parameters

Influence of Adhesive

Influence of Microstructure

Influence of Vacuum Heat Treatment

Role of Interfacial Stress

Role of Substrate Holding Arrangements

Failure Mode and Related Issues

Influence of Humidity

Influence of the Dissolution Behavior

Bonding Strength Measurements by Technologies Other Than ASTM

HAp Coatings Developed by Other Coating Processes

Bonding Strength of MIPS-HAp Coatings

MAPS-HAp vs. MIPS-HAp Coatings

Effect of Residual Stress

Shear Strength and Pushout Strength

Three-Point Bending Test

Fatigue Behavior



Micro/Nanomechanical Properties of Hydroxyapatite Coating


Basic Theory of Nanoindentation


Young’s Modulus

Effect of SBF Immersion

Reliability Issues in Nanoindentation Data

Fracture Toughness of MIPS-HAp Coatings



Tribological Properties of Hydroxyapatite Coatings


What Does the Literature Say?

Nanoscratch Testing of MIPS-HAp Coatings at Lower Load

Nanoscratch Testing of MIPS-HAp Coating at Higher Load

Microscratch Testing of MIPS-HAp Coatings

Microscratch Testing of MIPS-HAp Coatings before and after the SBF Immersion



Residual Stress of Hydroxyapatite Coating


Origin of Residual Stress

Identification of Residual Stress and Importance

Factors Affecting Residual Stress

Common Methodologies to Evaluate Residual Stress

Relative Advantages and Disadvantages

Role of Higher Plasmatron Power and Secondary Gas

Role of the Substrate Temperature

Nature of the Residual Stress State

Role of Other Basic Process Parameters

Residual Stress of Thermal Sprayed and Sol-Gel-Derived HAp Coatings

Residual Stress of MIPS-HAp Coatings



In Vivo Studies of Microplasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coating


Rabbit Model

Goat Model

Dog Model




Future Scope and Possibilities

MIPS-HAp Coating on Complex and Contoured Implants

MIPS Coating of Other Calcium Phosphates (TCP, BCP, etc.)

MIPS-HAp Coatings on C/C Composites

Second Phase Incorporation in HAp Coatings

Nanostructured Plasma Sprayed HAp Coating



About the Authors


Arjun Dey

Bangalore, Karnataka, India

Learn more about Arjun Dey >>

Arjun Dey is a scientist in the Thermal Systems Group at the Indian Space Research Organisation Satellite Centre, Bangalore. Dr. Dey was previously at the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata, India. He holds a bachelor's degree from Biju Patnaik University of Technology, Orissa, India, and master's and doctoral degrees from the Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Howrah (formerly Bengal Engineering and Science University). Highly decorated and widely published, Dr. Dey serves as a reviewer for many national and international journals. He recently coauthored the CRC Press book Nanoindentation of Brittle Solids with Dr. Mukhopadhyay.

Anoop Kumar Mukhopadhyay is a chief scientist and head of the Advanced Mechanical and Materials Characterization Division of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute (CGCRI), Kolkata, India. Prior to joining CSIR-CGCRI, Dr. Mukhopadhyay initiated in India the research work on the evaluation, analysis, and microstructure mechanical properties correlation of non-oxide ceramics for high-temperature applications. He holds a bachelor's degree from Kalyani University, India, and master's and Ph.D degrees from Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India. Highly decorated and widely published, Dr. Mukhopadhyay holds seven patents, serves on the editorial board of Soft Nanoscience Letters, and recently coauthored the CRC Press book Nanoindentation of Brittle Solids with Dr. Dey.

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