This compendium on Europe's military situation is written by leading analysts of military studies representing every major nation of Europe. Also included are three overview chapters that set the tone for this volume. These chapters - Martin Shaw on the evolution of a "common risk" society, Christopher Dandeker on the military in democratic societies, and Wilfried von Bredow on the re-nationalization of military strategy - provide an introduction to the work.Although the Cold War is now two decades removed from Europe, the challenges of transition to new defense systems and institutional structures still confront those who plan the future for military establishments. The country studies as well as the final analysis of the trends and probable future developments in Europe should be required reading throughout the national security structure for politicians and decision makers seeking to understand the dilemmas facing European militaries and the societies they defend.The chapters cover a wide range of nations. Jean Callaghan, Christo Domoztov, and Valery Ratchcev examine the Bulgarian armed forces after the 1997 elections and Marie Vlachova and Stefan Sarvas review civil-military relations in the Czech Republic. Janos Szabo studies the defense sector in Hungary. Adriana Stanescu sees Romania as a case of delayed modernization. Vladimir Rukavishnikov studies the military in post-communist Russia. Paul Klein and Jürgen Kuhlmann review the German armed forces in the context of a peace dividend. Bernard Boene and Didier Danet consider France and the post draft situation. Marina Nuciari and Giuseppe Caforio consider the Italian military in a democratic context. Jan van der Meulen and his colleagues look upon the Netherlands military as a case study in post-modernization. The final contribution summarizes lessons learned in assessing the contemporary civil-military complex.