1st Edition

Millimeter Wave Antennas for 5G Mobile Terminals and Base Stations




ISBN 9780367445430
Published November 25, 2020 by CRC Press
258 Pages 285 B/W Illustrations

USD $140.00

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Book Description

This book discusses antenna designs for handheld devices as well as base stations. The book serves as a reference and a handy guide for graduate students and PhD students involved in the field of millimeter wave antenna design. It also gives insights to designers and practicing engineers who are actively engaged in design of antennas for future 5G devices. It offers an in-depth study, performance analysis and extensive characterization of novel antennas for 5G applications. The reader will learn about basic design methodology and techniques to develop antennas for 5G applications including concepts of path loss compensation, co-design of commercial 4G antennas with millimeter wave 5G antennas and antennas used in phase array and pattern diversity modules. Practical examples included in the book will help readers to build high performance antennas for 5G subsystems/systems using low cost technology.

Key Features

Provides simple design methodology of different antennas for handheld devices as well as base stations for 5G applications.
 Concept of path loss compensation introduced.
 Co-design of commercial 4G antennas with millimetre wave 5G antennas presented.
 Comparison of phased array versus pattern diversity modules discussed in detail.
 Fabrication and Measurement challenges at mmWaves and Research Avenues in antenna designs for 5G and beyond presented.

Shiban Kishen Koul is an emeritus professor at the Centre for Applied Research in Electronics at the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi. He served as the chairman of Astra Microwave Products Limited, Hyderabad from 2009-2018. He is a Life Fellow of the Institution of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IEEE), USA, a Fellow of the Indian National Academy of Engineering (INAE), and a Fellow of the Institution of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineers (IETE). Karthikeya G S worked as an assistant professor in Visvesvaraya technological university from 2013 to 2016 and completed his PhD from the Centre for Applied Research in Electronics at the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi in Dec.2019. He is a member of IEEE-Antenna Propagation Society and Antenna Test and Measurement society.

Table of Contents

Contents

Preface...............................................................................................................................................xi

About the Authors....................................................................................................................... xiii

Abbreviations.................................................................................................................................xv

1. Introduction..............................................................................................................................1

1.1 Need for Millimeter Waves...........................................................................................1

1.2 Antennas for Cellular Communications.....................................................................4

1.3 Contrast between 4G and 5G Architectures...............................................................6

1.4 Antenna Designs for mmWave 5G Mobile Terminals and Base Stations..............9

1.4.1 Antennas for Mobile Terminals....................................................................10

1.4.2 Antennas for Base Stations............................................................................12

1.5 Antennas beyond 5G...................................................................................................13

1.6 Outline of the Book......................................................................................................13

References................................................................................................................................14

2. Conformal Antennas for Mobile Terminals.....................................................................21

2.1 Introduction..................................................................................................................20

2.2 Typical Requirements for Mobile Antennas.............................................................21

2.3 CPW-fed Wideband Corner Bent Antenna for 5G Mobile Terminals...................23

2.3.1 CPW-fed Wideband Antenna........................................................................24

2.3.2 CPW-fed Corner Bent Antenna.....................................................................30

2.3.3 CPW-fed Corner Bent Antenna with Reflector...........................................34

2.4 A wideband High Gain Conformal Antenna for mmWave 5G Smartphones....44

2.5 Design Guidelines for CPW-fed Conformal Antennas at Ka Band......................49

2.6 Conclusion....................................................................................................................50

References................................................................................................................................50

3. Flexible Antennas for Mobile Terminals..........................................................................53

3.1 Introduction..................................................................................................................53

3.2 Overview of Flexible Substrates for mmWave Applications.................................54

3.3 Corner Bent Patch Antenna for Portrait Mode........................................................56

3.4 Corner Bent Tapered Slot Antenna for Landscape Mode......................................60

3.5 Dielectric Loaded Polycarbonate-Based Vivaldi Antenna.....................................66

3.6 Conclusion....................................................................................................................71

References................................................................................................................................71

4. Compact Antennas with Pattern Diversity.......................................................................73

4.1 Introduction..................................................................................................................73

4.2 CPW-fed Conformal Folded Dipole with Pattern Diversity..................................74

4.2.1 CPW-Fed Folded Dipole................................................................................75

4.2.2 Conformal Folded Dipole Backed by Reflector..........................................83

4.3 Conformal Antennas with Pattern Diversity...........................................................92

4.3.1 Mobile Terminal Usage Modes.....................................................................92

4.3.2 Conformal Patch Antenna.............................................................................94

4.3.3 Conformal Tapered Slot Antenna.................................................................96

4.3.4 Conformal TSA with Parasitic Ellipse..........................................................99

4.3.5 Conformal Pattern Diversity.......................................................................103

4.4 Case Studies: Measurement in a Typical Indoor Environment...........................108

4.5 Conclusion.................................................................................................................. 110

References.............................................................................................................................. 111

5. Pattern Diversity Antennas for Base Stations................................................................ 115

5.1 Introduction................................................................................................................ 115

5.2 Pattern Diversity of Path Loss Compensated Antennas for 5G Base Stations......115

5.2.1 mmWave Tapered Slot Antenna................................................................. 116

5.2.2 Dielectric and Metamaterial Loaded TSA................................................. 119

5.2.3 Pattern Diversity...........................................................................................127

5.3 Path Loss Compensated Pattern Diversity Antennas with 3D Printed Radome.....131

5.3.1 3D Printed Radome for a Patch Antenna..................................................131

5.3.2 Pattern Diversity with 3D Printed Radome..............................................132

5.4 Path Loss Compensated Module with Progressive Offset ZIM..........................136

5.4.1 Central Element: Tapered Slot Antenna....................................................136

5.4.2 Spatially Modulated ZIM Loaded Antenna..............................................139

5.4.3 Stacked Pattern Diversity............................................................................141

5.5 Path Loss Compensated Quasi-Reflector Module................................................142

5.6 Design Guidelines for High Aperture Efficiency Antenna..................................143

5.7 Case Studies: Measurement in a Typical Indoor Environment...........................145

5.8 Conclusion..................................................................................................................146

References..............................................................................................................................146

6. Shared Aperture Antenna with Pattern Diversity for Base Stations.........................149

6.1 Introduction................................................................................................................149

6.2 Shared Aperture Antenna.........................................................................................150

6.3 DPZIM Design and Characterization......................................................................153

6.4 Shared Aperture Antenna with DPZIM..................................................................154

6.5 Design Guidelines for High-Gain Dual-Polarized Antenna Module.................160

6.6 Conclusion..................................................................................................................160

References..............................................................................................................................160

7. Co-Design of 4G LTE and mmWave 5G Antennas for Mobile Terminals................163

7.1 Introduction................................................................................................................163

7.2 Miniaturization Techniques for Antenna Size Reduction....................................163

7.3 Conformal 4G LTE MIMO Antenna Design...........................................................164

7.3.1 CRLH-Based Conformal 4G LTE Antenna................................................164

7.3.2 Compact CRLH-Based Conformal 4G LTE MIMO Antenna..................168

7.4 Conformal mmWave 5G MIMO Antenna..............................................................172

7.5 Corner Bent Integrated Design of 4G LTE and mmWave 5G Antennas............176

7.5.1 4G LTE Antenna Design...............................................................................176

7.5.2 mmWave 5G Antenna Design.....................................................................177

7.5.3 Co-Designed Corner Bent 4G LTE and mmWave 5G MIMO Antennas....181

7.6 Case Study: Co-Design of 4G and 5G Antennas in a Smartphone.....................184

7.7 Conclusion..................................................................................................................185

References..............................................................................................................................186

8. Corner Bent Phased Array for 5G Mobile Terminals...................................................189

8.1 Introduction................................................................................................................189

8.2 Phased Array Designs for mmWave Frequencies.................................................190

8.3 Need for Corner Bent Phased Array.......................................................................192

8.4 Corner Bent Phased Array on Polycarbonate........................................................194

8.5 Design Guidelines for a Phased Array at Ka Band...............................................200

8.6 Conclusion..................................................................................................................200

References..............................................................................................................................201

9. Fabrication and Measurement Challenges at mmWaves.............................................203

9.1 Introduction................................................................................................................203

9.2 Fabrication Process and Associated Tolerances.....................................................203

9.3 S-parameter Measurements......................................................................................206

9.4 Pattern Measurements and Sources of Error.........................................................207

9.5 Gain Measurements...................................................................................................209

9.6 Conclusion.................................................................................................................. 211

References.............................................................................................................................. 211

10. Research Avenues in Antenna Designs for 5G and beyond.......................................213

10.1 Introduction................................................................................................................213

10.2 PCB-Based Antenna Designs for 5G Cellular Devices.........................................213

10.3 Application of Additive Manufacturing for Antennas.........................................215

10.3.1 A Dual Band mmWave Antenna on 3D Printed Substrate.....................216

10.4 On-Chip Antennas for CMOS Circuitry.................................................................219

10.4.1 A Wideband CPS-Fed Dipole on Silicon....................................................220

10.5 Optically Transparent Antennas..............................................................................225

10.6 Conclusion..................................................................................................................226

References..............................................................................................................................226

Appendices...................................................................................................................................229

Appendix A: Hints for Simulations in Ansys HFSS........................................................229

A.1 Modelling................................................................................................229

Appendix B: Measurement Issues with End-Launch Connector...................................233

Appendix C: Material Parameters’ Extraction Using S-parameters..............................234

Appendix D: Useful MATLAB Codes................................................................................235

References..............................................................................................................................237

Index..............................................................................................................................................239

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Author(s)

Biography

Shiban Kishen Koul earned a BE degree in electrical engineering

from the Regional Engineering College, Srinagar, Jammu and

Kashmir, India, in 1977; an MTech in radar and communication

engineering in 1979; and a PhD in Microwave Engineering in

1983 at the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Delhi. He served

as Deputy Director (Strategy & Planning) from 2012 to 2016, and

Dr R. P. Shenoy Astra Microwave Chair Professor from 2014 to

2018 at the IIT Delhi. He is presently the Deputy Director (Strategy

& Planning and International Affairs) at the Indian Institute of

Technology, Jammu. He also served as the Chairman of M/S

Astra Microwave Products Limited, Hyderabad, a major company

involved in the development of RF and microwave systems

in India, from 2009 to 2019. His research interests include RF MEMS, high frequency wireless

communication, microwave engineering, microwave passive and active circuits,

device modelling, millimeter wave IC design, and reconfigurable microwave circuits

including antennas. He has successfully completed 36 major sponsored projects, 52 consultancy

projects and 58 technology development projects. He is author/co-author of 450

research papers, 10 state-of-the art books, and 3 book chapters. He holds 11 patents and 6

copyrights. He is a Life Fellow of the Institution of Electrical and Electronics Engineers,

USA (IEEE), Fellow of the Indian National Academy of Engineering (INAE), and Fellow of

the Institution of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineers (IETE). He is the Chief

Editor of the IETE Journal of Research and Associate Editor of the International Journal of

Microwave and Wireless Technologies, Cambridge University Press. He has delivered more

than 280 invited technical talks at various international symposia and workshops. He

served as the MTT-S ADCOM member from 2009 to 2018, is a Member of IEEE MTT

Society’s technical committees on Microwave and Millimeter Wave Integrated Circuits

(MTT-6) and RF MEMS (MTT-21), and of the India Initiative team of IEEE MTT-S, Adviser

Education Committee, Membership Services Regional Co-coordinator Region-10, member

of the Sight Adhoc Committee MTT-S, and an MTT-S Speaker Bureau lecturer. He was a

distinguished microwave lecturer at IEEE MTT-S for the period 2012–2014, and a distinguished

microwave lecturer emeritus at IEEE MTT-S in 2015.

He is a recipient of a Gold Medal from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics

Engineers, Calcutta (1977); the S. K. Mitra Research Award from the IETE for the best

research paper (1986); Indian National Science Academy (INSA) Young Scientist Award

(1986); International Union of Radio Science (URSI) Young Scientist Award (1987); the top

Invention Award (1991) of the National Research Development Council for his contributions

to the indigenous development of ferrite phase shifter technology; VASVIK Award

(1994) for the development of Ka-band components and phase shifters; the Ram Lal

Wadhwa Gold Medal from the Institution of Electronics and Communication Engineers

(IETE) (1995); an Academic Excellence award (1998) from the Indian Government for his

pioneering contributions to phase control modules for Rajendra Radar; the Shri Om

Prakash Bhasin Award (2009) in the field of Electronics and Information Technology;

a Teaching Excellence award (2012) from IIT Delhi, an award for his contribution to the

growth of smart material technology (2012) by the ISSS, Bangalore; the Vasvik Award

(2012) for contributions made to the area of Information and Communications Technology

(ICT); the M. N. Saha Memorial Award (2013) from the IETE for the best application-oriented

research paper; and the IEEE MTT Society Distinguished Educator Award (2014).

 

G. S. Karthikeya gained his undergraduate degree in electronics

and communication engineering in 2010 from the Visvesvaraya

Technological University, Belgaum. He received a Master’s degree

in microwave engineering from the University of Kerala in 2012.

He worked as an Assistant Professor in Visvesvaraya Technological

University from 2013 to 2016, where he established the Antenna

Architects’ lab. He joined the Centre for Applied Research in

Electronics, IIT Delhi in January 2017 and defended his thesis in

December 2019. He has authored or co-authored more than 40

articles in peer-reviewed journals and conference proceedings.

He has also filed three Indian patents and two US patents. His

research interests include metamaterials, EBG structures, and

mmWave antennas for mobile terminals and base stations. He is a

member of the IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society, and the Antenna Test & Measurement

society. He serves as the reviewer of ACES, IEEE Access and Cambridge’s IJMWT. He has

participated actively in more than 15 workshops on antennas in India and abroad.