1st Edition

Mineral Scales in Biological and Industrial Systems

Edited By Zahid Amjad Copyright 2014
    450 Pages 250 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Soluble and insoluble impurities present in water used for domestic and industrial applications can lead to the deposition of unwanted materials on equipment surfaces. Impurities such as dissolved minerals, natural organic compounds, and suspended particles can impact various processes and systems including boiling and cooling processes, desalination, geothermal power generation, milk pasteurization, oil and gas refining, the pulp and paper industry, and biological systems. Understanding the mechanisms of scale inhibition and dispersion is important in addressing the resulting challenges.

    Mineral Scales in Biological and Industrial Systems presents developments in mineral scale formation and control in a variety of industrial and biological systems, providing in-depth discussions on topics important to academic researchers and industrial technologists. With contributions from experts in their respective fields, this book comprises 22 chapters in 5 parts. It begins by addressing precipitation and inhibition of various scale-forming salts—such as calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, calcium fluoride, and calcium phosphate—in various industrial systems, including boilers, cooling, and high-pressure and high-temperature applications.

    Part II describes the precipitation and inhibition of salts encountered in sugar refining and geothermal power generation. Part III describes mineral scales that are important in biological systems. Part IV deals with the control of suspended matter in industrial water systems. Part V examines analytical techniques commonly used to characterize mineral scales and deposits during in-house evaluation of new products and deposit samples received for characterization from industrial installations, as well as product failure analyses. Covering the broad scope of mineral scales, this book both reviews current concepts and presents new information, with detailed discussions on fundamental and mechanistic aspects of mineral scale formation and inhibition.

    Part I Industrial: Carbonate, Sulfate, Phosphate, and Fluoride Scales

    Nucleation and Crystal Growth of Calcium Carbonate under Flow Conditions
    Georgia D. Athanasakou, Eleni C. Arvaniti, Petros G. Koutsoukos, and Christakis A. Paraskeva

    Calcite Growth Rate Inhibition by Low Molecular Weight Polycarboxylate Ions
    Michael M. Reddy

    Development of an Environmentally Acceptable New Polymer Calcium Sulfate Inhibitor for High Pressure–High Temperature (HTHP) Squeeze Application
    Tao Chen, Ping Chen, Harry Montgomerie, and Thomas Hagen

    Effect of Biopolymers on Scale Formation
    Emel Akyol, Özlem Doğan, and Mualla Öner

    Scaling Control for High-Temperature and High-Pressure Oil Production
    Wei Wang, Amy T. Kan, Wei Shi, Chunfang Fan, and Mason B. Tomson

    Biopolymers as Calcium Fluoride Precipitation Inhibitors for Aqueous Systems
    Zahid Amjad

    Inhibition of Calcium Phosphate by Phosphonates: The Effect of Triazinetriphosphonic Acid
    Stamatia Rokidi, Panayiotis I. Ioannou, and Petros G. Koutsoukos

    Part II Industrial: Sulfate, Silica, and Silicate Scales

    Scale Formation in Sugar Juice Heat Exchangers
    Christopher P. East, Christopher M. Fellows, and William O.S. Doherty

    Struvite Scale Formation: Prevention and Phosphorus Recovery
    Ioannis Mpountas, Theano Mavrikou, and Petros G. Koutsoukos

    Solution Chemistry Impact on Silica Polymerization by Inhibitors
    Robert W. Zuhl and Zahid Amjad

    Chemistry of Metal Silicates Deposits from Geothermal and Petroleum Produced Waters
    Darrell L. Gallup

    Silica Scale Inhibition: Untangling the "Gordian Knot" of Scale Formation in Industrial Water Systems
    Melina Preari, Anna Tsistraki, and Konstantinos D. Demadis

    Review of the State of the Art of Antiscalant Selection
    Hilla Shemer, David Hasson, and Raphael Semiat

    Part III Biological: Oxalate, Hydroxyapatite Scales

    Influence of Additives on Calcium Oxalate Crystallization in Solution
    Mitali China and Marina Tsianou

    Polarization-Mediated Modification of Hydroxyapatite to Improve Biological Responses
    Miho Nakamura and Kimihiro Yamashita

    Part IV Industrial: Suspended Matter and Oil Dispersion

    Impact of Calcium Carbonate Mineral Scales in Industries: Role of Surface Chemistry
    Partha Patra, P. Somasundaran, and Chi Lo

    Mitigating the Coastal Ecological Damage of Spilled Oil via Oil Anti-Deposition Strategies
    Robert Y. Lochhead, Sarah E. Morgan, Daniel Savin, Lisa K. Kemp, and Yan Zong

    Evaluation of Biopolymers as Iron Oxide (Rust) Dispersants for Industrial Water Systems
    Dominique Guyton and Zahid Amjad

    "Good Scale"–"Bad Scale": How Metal–Phosphonate Materials Contribute to Corrosion Inhibition
    Konstantinos D. Demadis and Giasemi K. Angeli

    Influence of Polymer Architecture on the Stabilization of Copper (II) in Aqueous Systems
    Danielle Morgan and Zahid Amjad

    Part V Scale/Deposit Characterization Techniques

    Microscopy and X-Ray-Based Analytical Techniques for Identifying Mineral Scales and Deposits
    Valerie P. Woodward and Zahid Amjad

    Characterization of Oil-Field Calcium Carbonate Scales
    Raj P. Singh Gaur and Nureddin M. Abbas



    Zahid Amjad, Ph.D., is a visiting professor in the Division of Mathematics and Sciences at Walsh University, North Canton, Ohio. During his more than 30 years at Calgon Corporation, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Lubrizol Advanced Materials, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio, Dr. Amjad has worked in various fields, including cosmetics, home care, oral care, pharmaceutics, water treatment, water purification, and related fields. His major interests include biological and industrial applications of water-soluble and water-swellable polymers, interactions of polymers with different substrates, crystal growth and dissolution, and adsorption and desorption phenomena in aqueous systems. Dr. Amjad has published more than 160 technical papers, has contributed to numerous book chapters, has edited 6 books, and holds 30 US patents. Dr. Amjad is also the owner of Aqua Science and Technology LLC, Columbus, Ohio, which provides consulting services for industrial water treatment, separation processes, and related technologies.