2nd Edition

Mining and the Environment
From Ore to Metal





ISBN 9780815394723
Published October 1, 2019 by CRC Press
796 Pages

USD $119.95

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Book Description

The history of mining is replete with controversy of which much is related to environmental damage and consequent community outrage. Over recent decades, this has led to increased pressure to improve the environmental and social performance of mining operations, particularly in developing countries. The industry has responded by embracing the ideals of sustainability and corporate social responsibility.

Mining and the Environment identifies and discusses the wide range of social and environmental issues pertaining to mining, with particular reference to mining in developing countries, from where many of the project examples and case studies have been selected. Following an introductory overview of pressing issues, the book illustrates how environmental and social impact assessment, such as defined in "The Equator Principles", integrates with the mining lifecycle and how environmental and social management aims to eliminate the negative and accentuate the positive mining impacts. Practical approaches are provided for managing issues ranging from land acquisition and resettlement of Indigenous peoples, to the technical aspects of acid rock drainage and mine waste management. Moreover, thorough analyses of ways and means of sharing non-transitory mining benefits with host communities are presented to allow mining to provide sustainable benefits for the affected communities. This second edition of Mining and the Environment includes new chapters on Health Impact Assessment, Biodiversity and Gender Issues, all of which have become more important since the first edition appeared a decade ago.

The wide coverage of issues and the many real-life case studies make this practice-oriented book a reference and key reading. It is intended for environmental consultants, engineers, regulators and operators in the field and for students to use as a course textbook. As much of the matter applies to the extractive industries as a whole, it will also serve environmental professionals in the oil and gas industries.

Karlheinz Spitz and John Trudinger both have multiple years of experience in the assessment of mining projects around the world. The combination of their expertise and knowledge about social, economic, and environmental performance of mining and mine waste management has resulted in this in-depth coverage of the requirements for responsible and sustainable mining.

Table of Contents

1 Minerals, Wealth, and Progress
1.1 History of Mining
1.2 The Path of Minerals from Cradle to Grave
1.3 Ore–A Natural Resource Curse or Blessing?
1.4 What Makes the Mining Industry Different?
1.5 The Unique Risk Profile of Mining
1.6 Meeting Environmental Issues Head On
1.7 Environmental Assessment Practice–Eliminate the Negative, Accentuate the Positive
1.8 The Equator Principles–Improved Practices for Better Outcomes
1.9 Mining and Sustainability
References

2 Environmental and Social Impact Assessment
Protection Before Exploitation
2.1 Responsibilities of Mining Companies During Environmental Assessment
2.2 Environmental Assessment In The Mining Cycle
2.3 Managing Environmental Assessment
2.4 Common Themes And Core Principles
2.5 When is an ESIA Required?
2.6 Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Step-by-Step
2.7 Documenting the Findings
2.8 Obtaining ESIA Approval
2.9 The Costs of Delay
2.10 What Environmental Assessment is Not
Appendix 2.1 Data Needs
References 

3 Health Impact Assessment
3.1 Health and its Determinants
3.2 What is a Health Impact Assessment?
3.3 Screening
3.4 Scoping
3.5 Community and Stakeholder Engagement
3.6 Community Health Baseline Survey
3.7 Assessment
3.8 Management
3.9 Monitoring
References

4 Involving the Public
Forging Partnerships and Trust
4.1 Historical Perspective
4.2 Planning Stakeholder Involvement
4.3 Getting to Know Your Stakeholders
4.4 How to Identify Stakeholders?
4.5 Engaging Stakeholders
4.6 Conflict Identification and Management
4.7 Understanding the Benefits and Risks of Public Involvement
4.8 Common Mistakes
References

5 The Anatomy of a Mine
5.1 It All Begins in the Earth
5.2 Exploration–From Reviewing Data to Taking Bulk Samples
5.3 Feasibility–Is It Worth Mining?
5.4 Engineering, Procurement, and Construction
5.5 Mining
5.6 Ore Dressing and Thickening
5.7 Ancillary Facilities
5.8 Design for Closure
References

6 Mining Methods Vary Widely
From Excavation to In-situ Leaching
6.1 The Three Main Categories of Commerical Minerals
6.2 Mining Methods
6.3 Artisanal Mining–Mining Outside Established Law

6 Converting Minerals to Metals
From Ore to Finished Product
7.1 Pyrometallurgical Mineral Processing–The Use of Fire
7.2 Hydrometallurgical Mineral Processing–Dissolving Metals Away from Gangue
7.3 Common Techniques To Estimate Emissions
Appendix 7.1 Products of Mining, Their Sources and Processing Requirements
Appendix 7.2 Mineral Processes and Their Impacts
References

8 Our Environment
A Set of Natural and Man-made Features
8.1 The Atmosphere–Air, Weather, and Climate
8.2 The Lithosphere–Geology, Landform, and Earth Resources
8.3 The Hydrosphere–Storage and Movement of Water
8.4 The Biosphere–Life on Earth
8.5 The Social Sphere–Social and Cultural Fabric of Society
8.6 The Economic Sphere–Production, Distribution, and Consumption of Goods and Services
8.7 Judging the State and Value of the Environment
8.8 What are Nature’s Economic Values?
8.9 International Law Pertaining to Natural and Environmental Resources
References

9 The Baseline
Understanding the Host Environment
9.1 The Use of Indicators
9.2 Environmental Scoping
9.3 Conducting Baseline Surveys–Ways and Means
9.4 Converting Data to Information
9.5 The Use of Remote Sensing Techniques and Geographic Information Systems
References

10 Identifying and Evaluating Impacts
Linking Cause and Effect
10.1 Defining the Challenges
10.2 Deciding on A Direction
10.3 Deciding on the Methodology
10.4 Linking Cause and Effect
10.5 Identifying Project Impacts
10.6 Evaluating Project Impacts
10.7 Cultural Heritage Sites and Mine Development
10.8 The Special Nature of Community Impacts
10.9 Environmental Justice
10.10 Group Decision-Making in Environmental Assessment
10.11 Reflecting on the Objective Nature of Environmental Assessment
10.12 Dealing with Uncertainties and Risks
References

11 Cumulative and Transboundary Impact Assessment
11.1 Definitions
11.2 Coal Mining in Central Kalimantan
11.3 Area of Influence
11.4 Valued Ecosystem Components in Area of Influence
11.5 Baseline Status of Valued Ecosystem Components in Area of Influence
11.6 Other Activities in Area of Influence and Environmental Drivers
11.7 Cumulative Impacts on VECs and their Significance
11.8 Management Actions
11.9 Main Challenges in Cumulative Impact Assessments
11.10 Regional Planning Based on Cumulative Impact Assessment
References

12 Emphasizing Environmental and Social Management and Monitoring
Managing What Matters
12.1 Success Factors for Environmental and Social Management
12.2 The Key Components of an ESMS
12.3 Benefits and Limitations
References

13 Metals, Their Biological Functions and Harmful ImpactsMetals are Naturally Occurring Elements
13.1 Persistence, Bioaccumulation and Toxicity of Metals
13.2 Some Notes on Selected Metals
13.3 Metals, Minerals and Rock
References

14 Coal
Its Use as Fuel, and Greenhouse Gas Emissions
14.1 Coal Formation
14.2 Coal Mining and the Release of Methane
14.3 Emissions from Coal Combustion
References

15 Was the Environmental Assessment Adequate?
Identifying Issues, Finding Solutions
15.1 Reviewing the Environmental and Social Impact Statement
15.2 Environmental Mine Audits
15.3 Sometimes Things Go Wrong
References

16 The Range of Environmental and Social Concerns
Separating Fact From Fantasy
16.1 Changes in Landform
16.2 Mine Wastes
16.3 Mine Effluents, Acid Rock Drainage and Water Balance
16.4 Air Quality and Climate Change
16.5 Biodiversity and Habitats
16.6 Social and Economic Change
16.7 Surface Mining Versus Underground Mining
16.8 Accidental Environmental Impacts
16.9 Uranium Mining
Appendix 16.1 An Overview of Environmental and Social Risks and Potential Financial Implications
References

17 Land Acquisition and Resettlement
When Property and Development Rights Collide
17.1 Some Useful Definitions
17.2 What Determines The Severity of Resettlement Losses?
17.3 Resettlement Priorities
17.4 Compensation for Resettlement Losses and Restoration of Livelihood– A Right, Not a Need
17.5 Land Acquisition and Related Issues
17.6 Livelihood Restoration–Realizing Sustainable Value in the Compensation of Lost Assests
17.7 The Social Risks of Resettlement
17.8 Managing Land Acquisition and Resettlement
17.9 Artisanal Mining and Involuntary Resettlement
References

18 Community Development
Ensuring Long Term Benefits
18.1 What Defines A Community?
18.2 Pointers to Success
18.3 Community Development Process
18.4 Preparing for Mine Closure
18.5 Community Programs–What to Do?
18.6 Local Benefits Do Not Always Eventuate
18.7 Common Problems and Solutions
Appendix 18 Evaluating Community Development Programs
References

19 Indigenous Peoples Issues
Respecting the Differences
19.1 Who Are Indigenous Peoples?
19.2 Reasons For Concern
19.3 Important Characteristics of Indigenous Societies
19.4 Issues and Opportunities
19.5 Strategies for Interaction with Indigenous Communities
19.6 Rights of Indigenous Peoples
19.7 Responsibilities of Mining Companies in Relation to Indigenous Peoples
19.8 Preserving or Restoring Autonomy: Partnering for the Long Term
19.9 Project Preparation
19.10 In Operation and Closing Down
19.11 Conclusions
References

20 Gender in the Mining Industry
20.1 Definitions, Gender Mainstreaming, and Gender Equality
20.2 History of Women in Mining
20.3 Present-Day Mining and Gender
20.4 Other Approaches to Gender Assessment
20.5 What Works to Address Gender Inequity?
20.6 Outlook into a Gender Equal Future
References

21 Biodiversity and Conservation
21.1 What is Critical Habitat?
21.2 Identification and Assessment of Critical Habitat
21.3 Biodiversity Action Plan
21.4 Biodiversity Management Plans and Procedures
References

22 Acid Rock Drainage
The Unseen Legacy
22.1 Nature and Significance of Acid Rock Drainage
22.2 Evaluating and Managing ARD
References

23 Tailings Disposal
Concepts and Practices
23.1 Deciding on the Tailings Disposal Scheme
23.2 Alternative Approaches to Tailings Disposal
23.3 Surface Tailings Storage
23.4 Submarine Tailings Placement
References

24 Approaches to Waste Rock Disposal
Issues and Risks
24.1 Nature and Characteristics of Waste Rock
24.2 Potential Impacts of Waste Rock Disposal
24.3 Objectives of Waste Rock Disposal
24.4 Site Selection for Waste Rock Storages
24.5 Alternative Design and Construction Approaches
24.6 Landform Design
24.7 Short-Term and Long-Term Erosion Control
24.8 Monitoring
References
Contents

25 Erosion
The Perpetual Disruptive Forces of Water and Wind
25.1 Surface Water Erosion
25.2 Wind Erosion
References

26 Mine Closure
It is not Over When it is Over
26.1 Reasons for Mine Closure
26.2 Objectives of Mine Closure
26.3 Financing Mine Closure–The ‘Polluter Pays’ Principle
26.4 Rehabilitation
26.5 Pit Lakes
26.6 Social Aspects of Mine Closure
References

27 Looking Ahead
27.1 Existing Trends in the Mining Sector
27.2 Trends in Environmental Practice
27.3 On and Beyond the Horizon–Global Change and Challenges
27.4 Concluding Remarks
References

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Author(s)

Biography

Dr. Karlheinz Spitz is an environmental consultant with more than 20 years professional experience in Canada, Europe, Asia, and Australia. His main interest is the environmental assessment of large resource development projects in developing countries. He worked on many mines in South East Asia, covering a wide range of minerals and a diverse spectrum of environmental and social settings. Dr. Spitz understands mining as a sustainable economic activity; his focus is on the social, economic and environmental performance of mining. Dr. Spitz provides high level advice to Equator Principles Financial Institutions, and he is regular guest lecturer at various universities.

John Trudinger is an environmental consultant with more than 40 years of professional experience. Initially qualified as a geologist, his initial experience was on geotechnical investigations for large infrastructure projects. In the early 1970’s he became involved in the emerging environmental business, and has since contributed as team member or team leader on environmental assessments for more than 100 resource development and infrastructure projects. He has worked throughout Australia, Asia and North America. His particular interest is the management of mine wastes in the mountainous wet tropics.