In the last decade and a half, great progress has been made in the development of concepts and models for mixture toxicity, both in human and environmental toxicology. However, due to their different protection goals, developments have often progressed in parallel but with little integration. Arguably the first book to clearly link ecotoxicology an
Exposure. Introduction. Emission Scenarios. Interactions Affecting Availability and Exposure to Chemical Mixtures. Environmental Fate Modeling. Exposure Scenarios and Monitoring. Summary and Conclusions. Toxicokinetics and Toxicodynamics. Introduction. Fundamental Principles. Toxicokinetics. Toxicodynamics. Toxicity from Combined Exposure to Chemicals. Introduction. Approaches to Mixture Effect Assessment. Mechanisms and mixture effects. The predictability of mixture effects - a brief review. Defining Determinants of Synergistic Mixture Effects. Mixture Effects at Low Levels. What About the Real World? Test Design, Mixture Characterization and Data Evaluation. Introduction. Testing Aims. Concentration Addition and Independent Action: Empirical Modeling. Technical Issues and Pitfalls. Component-Based Approaches, Test Designs and Methods. Whole Mixture Approaches, Test Designs and Methods. Case Studies. Risk Assessment. Introduction. Typical Features of Mixture Assessment. State of the Art in Mixture Assessment. Conceptual Framework for Human and Ecological Risk Assessment of Mixtures. Issues in Human and Ecological Risk Assessment of Mixtures. Appendix. Glossary.