Mobile Opportunistic Networks: Architectures, Protocols and Applications (Hardback) book cover

Mobile Opportunistic Networks

Architectures, Protocols and Applications

Edited by Mieso K. Denko

© 2011 – Auerbach Publications

290 pages | 108 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9781420088120
pub: 2011-05-26
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pub: 2016-04-19
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The widespread availability of mobile devices coupled with recent advancements in networking capabilities make opportunistic networks one of the most promising technologies for next-generation mobile applications. Are you ready to make your mark?

Featuring the contributions of prominent researchers from academia and industry, Mobile Opportunistic Networks: Architectures, Protocols and Applications introduces state-of-the-art research findings, technologies, tools, and innovations. From fundamentals to advanced concepts, the book provides the comprehensive technical coverage of this rapidly emerging communications technology you need to make contributions in this area.

The first section focuses on modeling, networking architecture, and routing problems. The second section examines opportunistic networking technologies and applications. Presenting the latest in modeling opportunistic network connection structures and pairwise contacts, the text discusses the fundamentals of opportunistic routing. It reviews the most-popular routing protocols and introduces a routing protocol for delivering data with load balancing and reliable transmission capabilities.

  • Details an approach to analyzing user behavior based on realistic data in opportunistic networks
  • Presents analytical approaches for mobility and heterogeneous connections management in mobile opportunistic networks
  • Compares credit-based incentive schemes for mobile wireless ad hoc networks and challenged networks
  • Discusses the combined strengths of cache-based approaches and Infostation-based approaches

Addressing key research challenges and open issues, this complete technical guide reports on the latest advancements in the deployment of stationary relay nodes on vehicular opportunistic networks. It also illustrates the use of the service location and planning (SLP) technique for resource utilization with quality of service (QoS) constraints in opportunistic capability utilization networks. The book introduces a novel prediction-based routing protocol, and supplies authoritative coverage of communication architectures, network algorithms and protocols, emerging applications, industrial and professional standards, and experimental studies—including simulation tools and implementation test beds.

Table of Contents

Routing In Mobile Opportunistic Networks; Libo Song and David F. Kotz

Routing Protocol

Direct Delivery Protocol

Epidemic Routing Protocol

Random Routing

PRoPHET Protocol

Link-State Protocol

Timely Contact Probability

Our Routing Protocol

Receiver Decision

Sender Decision

Multinode Relay

Evaluation Results

Mobility Traces


Message Generation



State of the Art in Modeling Opportunistic Networks; Thabotharan Kathiravelu and Arnold Pears

Trace Collection and Analysis

Modeling Contacts

Mobility Models

New Generation Models

Simulation Tools for Modeling and Analysis

A Connectivity Model

Application of the Connectivity Model and a Content Distribution Scenario–Based Study

Related Work in Connectivity Modeling

Open Problems and Challenges

Credit-Based Cooperation Enforcement Schemes Tailored to Opportunistic Networks; Isaac Woungang & Mieso K. Denko

Opportunistic Networking Paradigm

Types of Opportunistic Networks

Routing in Opportunistic Networks

Motivation for Studying Cooperation Schemes Tailored to Opportunistic Networks Context of Our Study

Elementary Cooperation

Layered Cooperation

Notations and Definitions of Basic Terms

Node Misbehaviors

Attack Types

Cooperation and Transactions

Incentive Patterns and Incentive Scheme Characteristics

Security and Trust Models

Implementation and Performance

Payment and Rewarding Models

Data Dissemination and Path Identification Strategies

Evaluation of Credit-Based Incentive Schemes

Secure Incentive Protocol (SeIP)

The Secure Multilayer Credit-Based Incentive Scheme (SMART)

The Express Protocol

Incentive-Compatible Opportunistic Routing (ICOR)

Incentive-Aware Routing (IAR)


Fair Incentive Protocol (FIP)

E2-SCAN Protocol

Conclusions and Future Trends

Opportunism in Mobile Ad Hoc Networking; Marcello Caleffi & Luigi Paura

Opportunistic Routing


Multiuser Diversity


Opportunistic Protocols

Extremely Opportunistic Routing

Simple Opportunistic Adaptive Routing



Multi-Channel Extremely Opportunistic Routing

Opportunistic DHT-Based Routing

Comparison of the Considered Protocols

Future Work Issues

Opportunistic Routing for Load-Balancing and Reliable Data Dissemination in Wireless Sensor Networks; Min Chen, Wen Ji, Xiaofei Wang, Wei Cai, & Lingxia Liao

Related Work

RLRR Design Issues

Accurate and Up-to-date Energy Information

Load Balancing


Loop Freedom

Low-Cost Sensor Design

The RLRR Protocol

The RLRR Mechanism

Time Gradient Calculation

Solving the Dead-End Problem

Loop Freedom in RLRR

Performance Metrics

Effects of ΔTG

Comparison of RLRR, EDDD, DD and GEAR with Variable Link Failure Rates

Trace-Based Analysis of Mobile User Behaviors for Opportunistic Networks; Wei-Jen Hsu & Ahmed Helmy

Background on Opportunistic Networks

The TRACE Framework

Data Sets Used

Trace Collection Methods

Derivation of Encounter Events from WLAN Traces

Individual User Associations in Wireless LAN Traces

Dimensions of Analysis

Activeness of the Users

Macro-Level Mobility of Users

Micro-Level Mobility of Users

Repetitive Association Pattern of Users

Conclusions for the Individual Behavior Analysis

Nodal Encounter Patterns and Their Impact on Opportunistic Networks

Dimensions of Analysis

Distribution of Encounter Events

Encounter-Relationship Graph

Capturing User Friendship in WLAN Traces

Information Diffusion Using Encounters

Ideal Scenarios

Selfish Users

Removal of Short Encounters

Conclusions for the Encounter Analysis

Future Research Directions

Quality of Service in an Opportunistic Capability Utilization Network; Leszek Lilien, Zill E-Huma Kamal, Ajay Gupta, Isaac Woungang, & Elvira Bonilla Tamez


Oppnet Use Scenarios

Classes of Opportunistic Networks and Oppnets

Basic Oppnet Operations and Categories of Helpers

Quality of Service in Oppnets

QoS and Resource Utilization in Oppnets

Service Location and Planning Mechanism for Resource Utilization in Oppnets

Using SLP Model for Resource Utilization in Oppnets

Scenarios Illustrating Use of SLP in Oppnets

Related Work on Optimization Problems and Pervasive Computing

Related Work on Optimization Problems

Related Work on Pervasive Computing Technologies

Using Semantic Web to Specify QoS Requirements in Oppnets

Basics of the Semantic Web

Semantic Web Services and Their Specification

Semantic Web Service Specification

Semantic QoS Specifications

Related Work on the Semantic Web and QoS

Semantic Web Services in Ubiquitous and Pervasive Computing

Semantic Web Services in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Semantic Web Services in Peer-to-Peer and Grid Environments

Proposed Semantic QoS Specification Solution for Oppnets

The Oppnet SCOW-Q Model

Oppnet SCOW-Q for Seed Nodes and Control Center

Classification of Helpers According to Their Access, Capability, and QoS Specifications

Effective File Transfer in Mobile Opportunistic Networks; Ling-Jyh Chen & Ting-Kai Huang

Related Work

Mobile Data Transfer

Opportunistic Network Routing

The Proposed Approach: M-FTP

M-FTP Architecture

Collaborative Forwarding Algorithm


Evaluation Scenarios

Evaluation I: Service Ratio

Evaluation II: With Free Riders

Evaluation III: Traffic Overhead


Stationary Relay Nodes Deployment on Vehicular Opportunistic Networks; Joel J. P. C. Rodrigues, Vasco N. G. J. Soares, & Farid Farahmand

Stationary Relay Nodes

Research Efforts on Increasing Vehicular Opportunistic Networks Performance with Stationary Relay Nodes

Impact of Stationary Relay Nodes on the Performance of Vehicular Opportunistic Networks

Scenario I: Urban Connectivity

Simulation Settings

Results Analysis

Scenario II: Rural Connectivity

Simulation Settings

Results Analysis

Connection Enhancement for Mobile Opportunistic Networks; Weihuang Fu, Kuheli Louha, & Dharma P. Agrawal

Mobility and Heterogeneous Connections

Mobility Models

Connection Process

Heterogeneous Connections

Network Capacity

Network Selection

Network Discovery

Network-Based Network Discovery

Terminal-Based Network Discovery

Network Selection Algorithms

Fuzzy Logic–Based Scheme

Multi-Attribute Decision Making Scheme

Message Forwarding

Single-Copy Forwarding

Direct Forwarding

Randomized Forwarding

Mobility-Based Forwarding

Location-Based Forwarding

Probability-Based Forwarding

Cost-Based Approach

Utility-Based Approach

Multicopy Forwarding

Epidemic Forwarding

Utility-Based Forwarding


About the Editor

Mieso K. Denko received his MSc degree from the University of Wales, U.K., and his PhD degree from the University of Natal, South Africa, both in Computer Science. He is a founding Director of the Pervasive and Wireless Networking Research Lab in the Department of Computing and Information Science, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada.

Dr. Denko's research interests include wireless networks, mobile and pervasive computing, wireless mesh networks, wireless sensor networks and network security. His research results in these areas have been published international journals, conferences and contributed to books. Dr Denko is a founder/co-founder of a number of ongoing international workshops and symposia. He has served on several international conferences and workshops as general vice-chair, program co-chair/vice-chair, publicity chair and technical program committee member. He has guest co-edited several journal Special Issues in Springer, Wiley, Elsevier and other journals.

Most recently he guest co-edited journal special issues in ACM/Springer Mobile Networks and Applications (MONET) and IEEE Systems Journal (ISJ). Dr Denko has edited/co-edited multiple books in the areas of pervasive and mobile computing, wireless networks and autonomic networks. Most recently he co-edited two books Wireless Quality of Service: Techniques, Standards, and Applications published by Auerbach Publications, September 2008 and Autonomic Computing and Networking published by Springer in June 2009. He is Associate Editor of international journals including the International Journal of Communication Systems (Wiley), the Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing (Springer), and Security and Communication Networks Journal (Wiley). Dr Denko is a senior member of the ACM and IEEE, and the Vice Chair of IFIP WG 6.9.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
COMPUTERS / Networking / General
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Telecommunications
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Mobile & Wireless Communications