Modeling of Steelmaking Processes  book cover
1st Edition

Modeling of Steelmaking Processes

ISBN 9781420062434
Published August 11, 2009 by CRC Press
493 Pages 180 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

From the prediction of complex weather patterns to the design of swimsuits, modeling has, over the years, quietly but steadily become an essential part of almost every field and industry—and steelmaking is no exception. Factors such as visual opacity, high operating temperature, and the relatively large size of industrial reactors often preclude direct experimental observation in steel manufacturing. Therefore the industry is overwhelmingly dependent on modeling to quickly and cost-effectively provide insight into analysis, design, optimization, and control of processing. However, few, if any, books offer the adequate coverage of modeling.

Addresses Fundamental Principles of Physical and Mathematical Modeling in Steelmaking Processes

Modeling of Steelmaking Processes meets that ever-present demand and provides a solid knowledge base on which to build. With content designed to serve professionals and students, this book starts with an overview of steelmaking and develops into a focused description of underlying scientific fundamentals and applications.

This powerful learning tool:

  • Presents an overview of steelmaking, the relevance of modeling and measurements, the evolution of steelmaking, and modern technology
  • Discusses emerging issues, such as environmental emissions, recycling, and product development and quality
  • Reviews computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software
  • Analyzes mechanistic, AI-based, and macroscopic models, to provide a holistic view of steelmaking process modeling
  • Provides useful questions and problems, as well as a practice session on modeling, to reinforce understanding

Developed as a self-tutorial, this text explores thermodynamic principles, analysis of metallurgical kinetics and transport phenomena, and key numerical methods, helping readers easily navigate a generally complex subject.

Table of Contents

Steelmaking, Modeling, and Measurements

Steelmaking: Past and Present

An Overview of Steelmaking

Modeling in Steelmaking


Steelmaking and the Future

Knowledge-Based Foundation of Steelmaking

Metallurgical Thermodynamics

Fluid Dynamics

Heat Transfer

Mass Transfer

Chemical Kinetics

Behavior of Gas Jets in Liquids

Elements of Physical Modeling

Principles of Physical Modeling

Dimensional Analysis

Choice of Scale Factor and Working Fluid

Limitations of Water Modeling

Scaling Up of Result and Full-Scale Prediction

Experimental Techniques in Aqueous Modeling

Some Illustrative Examples

Elements of Mathematical Modeling

Mathematical Modeling in Steelmaking

Mechanistic Modeling of Steelmaking Processes

Numerical Solution

Uncertainties in Mathematical Modeling

Commercial Software

Mathematical Modeling I: Fluid Flow

Modeling of Laminar Flow

Modeling of Turbulent Flow


Mathematical Modeling II: Liquid-State Processing Operations

Motion of Solid Addition in Steel Melt

Melting and Dissolution of Solid

Thermal Energy Transport and Temperature Distribution

Transport and Removal of Inclusion

Bubble Population Balance Model

Mass Transfer and Mixing

Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction

Solidification and Continuous Casting

Mathematical Modeling III: Solid-State Processing Operations

Modeling of Diffusive Heat Transfer Phenomena

Modeling of Simultaneous Diffusive Heat and Mass Transfer Phenomena

Modeling of Mechanical Working

Modeling of Microstructural Phenomena

Mathematical Modeling IV: Macroscopic Modeling of Ladle Metallurgy Steelmaking

Modeling Approach

Macroscopic Models

Plume Velocity

Application of Macroscopic Models to High Temperature Melts

Intelligent Modeling: Neural Network and Genetic Algorithm in Steelmaking

Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Neural Network

Optimization and Genetic Algorithm

Application of ANN and GA in Steelmaking

Integration of ANN, GA, and CFD: Application in Modeling of Steelmaking Processes

Practice Sessions on Physical and Mathematical Modeling

Practice Session on Physical Modeling

Practice Session on Mathematical Modeling


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Professor Mazumdar has been teaching process modeling and steelmaking at the Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India, for more than two decades. He has coauthored a book, and has written book chapters and numerous articles in peer-reviewed journals. He is well known for numerous original contributions in the area of ladle metallurgy, steelmaking, and continuous casting. Professor Mazumdar is a fellow of the Indian National Academy of Engineering and works as a consultant to several Indian steel plants.

Professor Evans holds the P. Malozemoff chair in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley. During his four-decade-long career in metals and materials research, he has made numerous original contributions, and has authored and coauthored several books and monographs. Professor Evans is well known for his contributions to modeling in process metallurgy and aluminum metallurgy. He has to his credit more than 300 publications and has won several awards and honors including the Brimacombe Award, the Berkeley Citation, and the Douglas Gold Medal of Advances in Mechanical Engineering.


"I enjoyed the easy writing style which, coupled with worked examples to compliment the theory, and self learning exercises at the end of each chapter, make for a very useful book for industry, academia and R&D…. an enjoyable read providing some extremely valuable theoretical and practical information making it a very useful reference book and teaching aid."
—Dr. David Price, Executive Editor, Ironmaking and Steelmaking Journal