There are a number of methods used to synthetically prepare biopolymers, their models, and bioanalogous polymers. This work approaches the syntheses of the three major groups of biopolymers existing in nature - polypeptides, polysaccharides, and nucleic and teichoic acids - by ring-opening polymerization. Until now, this method has never been reviewed uniformly for these three groups. The majority of models prepared by ring-opening polymerization can not reach the complexity of the actual biological molecules. However, a better understanding of these biopolymers will aid in the use of such molecules in several fields of application in research and other high technologies, where they mimic functions of related biopolymers in living organisms.