Modern Electric, Hybrid Electric, and Fuel Cell Vehicles: 3rd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Modern Electric, Hybrid Electric, and Fuel Cell Vehicles

3rd Edition

By Mehrdad Ehsani, Yimin Gao, Stefano Longo, Kambiz Ebrahimi

CRC Press

546 pages

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pub: 2018-02-26
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Description

"This book is an introduction to automotive technology, with specic reference to battery electric, hybrid electric, and fuel cell electric vehicles. It could serve electrical engineers who need to know more about automobiles or automotive engineers who need to know about electrical propulsion systems. For example, this reviewer, who is a specialist in electric machinery, could use this book to better understand the automobiles for which the reviewer is designing electric drive motors. An automotive engineer, on the other hand, might use it to better understand the nature of motors and electric storage systems for application in automobiles, trucks or motorcycles.

The early chapters of the book are accessible to technically literate people who need to know something about cars. While the rst chapter is historical in nature, the second chapter is a good introduction to automobiles, including dynamics of propulsion and braking. The third chapter discusses, in some detail, spark ignition and compression ignition (Diesel) engines. The fourth chapter discusses the nature of transmission systems.”

—James Kirtley, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA

“The third edition covers extensive topics in modern electric, hybrid electric, and fuel cell vehicles, in which the profound knowledge, mathematical modeling, simulations, and control are clearly presented. Featured with design of various vehicle drivetrains, as well as a multi-objective optimization software, it is an estimable work to meet the needs of automotive industry.”

—Haiyan Henry Zhang, Purdue University, USA

“The extensive combined experience of the authors have produced an extensive volume covering a broad range but detailed topics on the principles, design and architectures of Modern Electric, Hybrid Electric, and Fuel Cell Vehicles in a well-structured, clear and concise manner. The volume offers a complete overview of technologies, their selection, integration & control, as well as an interesting Technical Overview of the Toyota Prius. The technical chapters are complemented with example problems and user guides to assist the reader in practical calculations through the use of common scientic computing packages. It will be of interest mainly to research postgraduates working in this eld as well as established academic researchers, industrial R&D engineers and allied professionals.”

—Christopher Donaghy-Sparg, Durham University, United Kingdom

The book deals with the fundamentals, theoretical bases, and design methodologies of conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, electric vehicles (EVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs). The design methodology is described in mathematical terms, step-by-step, and the topics are approached from the overall drive train system, not just individual components. Furthermore, in explaining the design methodology of each drive train, design examples are presented with simulation results. All the chapters have been updated, and two new chapters on Mild Hybrids and Optimal Sizing and Dimensioning and Control are also included

• Chapters updated throughout the text.

• New homework problems, solutions, and examples.

• Includes two new chapters.

• Features accompanying MATLABTM software.

Reviews

"This book is an introduction to automotive technology, with specific reference to battery electric, hybrid electric, and fuel cell electric vehicles. It could serve electrical engineers who need to know more about automobiles or automotive engineers who need to know about electrical propulsion systems. For example, this reviewer, who is a specialist in electric machinery, could use this book to better understand the automobiles for which the reviewer is designing electric drive motors. While the first chapter is historical in nature, the second chapter is a good introduction to automobiles, including dynamics of propulsion and braking. The third chapter discusses, in some detail, spark ignition and compression ignition (Diesel) engines. The fourth chapter discusses the nature of transmission systems."

— James Kirtley, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA

"The third edition covers extensive topics in modern electric, hybrid electric, and fuel cell vehicles, in which the profound knowledge, mathematical modeling, simulations, and control are clearly presented. Featured with design of various vehicle drivetrains, as well as a multi-objective optimization software, it is an estimable work to meet the needs of automotive industry."

Haiyan Henry Zhang, Purdue University, USA

"As we make the transition to clean, low-carbon vehicles, analytics will be increasingly important to understand the environmental and performance trade-offs. Modern Electric, Hybrid Electric, and Fuel Cell Vehicles provides the needed analytic foundation for this vehicle revolution."

— Daniel Kammen, University of California, Berkeley, USA

"This book clearly explains the mechanical and electrical principles of the modern hybrid electric powertrains. It is an excellent textbook, not only for the beginners, but also for the experts."

— Jae wan Park, University of California, Davis, USA

"The extensive combined experience of the authors has produced an extensive text covering a broad range with detailed topics on the principles, design, and architectures of Modern Electric, Hybrid Electric, and Fuel Cell Vehicles in a well-structured, clear, and concise manner. The book offers a complete overview of technologies, their selection, integration & control. The technical chapters are complemented with example problems and user guides to assist the reader in practical calculations through the use of common scientific computing packages. It will be of interest mainly to research postgraduates working in this field, as well as established academic researchers, industrial R&D engineers, and allied professionals."

— Christopher Donaghy-Spargo, Durham University, United Kingdom

"The book is outstanding in providing a comprehensive coverage, in terms of both collection of relevant subject matters in the field, and wide span of content levels to meet needs ranging from university senior technical elective courses to practicing professionals."

— Jerry C. Ku, Wayne State University, USA

"This book addresses an important topic, guiding the reader through the fundamentals of longitudinal vehicle dynamics, conventional powertrains and technologies, all the way through to modern electric and electric hybrid propulsion systems. The vital components that make up the electric powertrain are described in detail, particularly traction motors, batteries, other storage technologies, and fuel cells. The subject of hybrid vehicles is a complex one, and the number of variations created by choice of components and control strategies is substantial. This book would be ideal for engineers interested to retrain to move into this subject from conventional internal combustion engines and mechanical transmissions, as well as masters and research students."

— Keith Robert Pullen, City University of London, United Kingdom

"This is the third edition of a well-known book. The esteemed authors have produced a very good book, which is suitable not only to researchers, but to young students wanting to study the topic of electric vehicles. It is further enhanced by the usage of MATLABTM and the numerous examples of how to properly design/optimise an EV under various configurations. Overall, I definitely recommend this book to be purchased by researchers, academics, industrialists, students, and even the general reader who wants to better understand the operation of EVs."

Damian Giaouris, Newcastle University, United Kingdom

"The extensive experience of the authors put in a single book is an enormous resource for any newcomer in this field. Not only is the theoretical background well covered, but the book presents an insightful practical demonstration based on actual numbers from the industry. The companion software provided with the book will help readers understand the in-depth analysis presented in the book."

Shafiq Odhano, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom

"This is a very welcome updated edition of a book that has become one of the leading classics on the subject. In addition to maintaining the breadth of coverage of the fundamentals, the new edition adds new chapters on fundamentals of vehicle transmission and extended coverage of regenerative braking. It also includes several new chapters that provide in depth treatment of design of series hybrid drive train for off-road vehicles, design of full-size engine HEV, and power train optimization. The book provides a very helpful user guide for a multi-objective optimization toolbox."

— Suleiman Sharkh, University of Southampton, United Kingdom

"This is one of the best available books in the area of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). I have used this book for teaching a graduate course on ‘Advanced Propulsion for HEVs.’ The main advantage of this book centers on explaining HEV fundamentals and design tools in a simple language. The new chapters in the third edition will help readers to build up understanding and develop a framework for multi-objective optimization for design of HEVs."

— Mahdi Shahbakhti, Michigan Technological University, USA

"The third edition has been enhanced with three important chapters that address the issues related to modeling and design optimization of hybrid electric vehicles. These new subjects are applicable in many design problems of hybrid electric vehicles, which are multi-objective and multi-constrained problems intersecting several disciplines of engineering. A chapter on Vehicle Transmission was also added, which is important to understand and vehicle power train. Because of the projected proliferation of electrification in power trains across the industry, any automotive engineer should have a copy of this book in their personal library."

Ciro A. Soto, Ford Motor Company & University of Michigan, USA

"Ehsani, Gao, Longo, and Ebrahimi offer a comprehensive and careful review of current electric and hybrid technology that would be useful to practicing engineers and students alike. The text not only provides a careful survey of hybrid vehicle fundamentals and design, but it also incorporates a thorough discussion of environmental impacts of internal combustion engines, an accessible review of ICE performance characteristics, and basic information on vehicle design and aerodynamics, making this text able to provide a coherent and complete presentation for an advanced undergraduate course. I have used this text for several years in a senior-level course, with good success. The approach is systematic and careful, but it does not get bogged down in dense calculations, allowing for an accessible progression for advanced students, while maintaining rigor and completeness that make the book useful to professionals."

Patrick Hossay, Stockton University, New Jersey, USA

"At 545 pages, this book is quite a substantial tome and for those working in this field it is an essential purchase."

-Chromatographia-Springer (2019)

Table of Contents

1. Environmental Impact and History of Modern Transportation

1.1 Air Pollution

1.2 Global Warming

1.3 Petroleum Resources

1.4 Induced Costs

1.5 Importance of Different Transportation Development Strategies to Future Oil Supply

1.6 History of EVs

1.7 History of HEVs

1.8 History of Fuel Cell Vehicles

References

2. Fundamentals of Vehicle Propulsion and Brake

2.1 General Description of Vehicle Movement

2.2 Vehicle Resistance

2.3 Dynamic Equation

2.4 Tire–Ground Adhesion and Maximum Tractive Effort

2.5 Power Train Tractive Effort and Vehicle Speed

2.6 Vehicle Performance

2.7 Operating Fuel Economy

2.8 Brake Performance

References

3. Internal Combustion Engines

3.1 Spark Ignition (SI) Engine

3.2 Compression Ignition (CI) Engine

3.3 Alternative Fuels and Alternative Fuel Engines

References

4. Vehicle Transmission

4.1 Power Plant Characteristics

4.2 Transmission Characteristics

4.3 Manual Gear Transmission (MT)

4.4 Automatic Transmission

4.5 Continuously Variable Transmission

4.6 Infinitely Variable Transmissions (IVT)

4.7 Dedicated Hybrid Transmission (DHT)

References

5. Hybrid Electric Vehicles

5.1 Concept of Hybrid Electric Drivetrains

5.2 Architectures of Hybrid Electric Drivetrains

References

6. Electric Propulsion Systems

6.1 DC Motor Drives

6.2 Induction Motor Drives

6.3 Permanent Magnetic BLDC Motor Drives

6.4 SRM Drives

References

7. Design Principle of Series (Electrical Coupling) Hybrid Electric Drivetrain

7.1 Operation Patterns

7.2 Control Strategies

7.3 Design Principles of a Series (Electrical Coupling) Hybrid Drivetrain

7.4 Design Example

References

8. Parallel (Mechanically Coupled) Hybrid Electric Drivetrain Design

8.1 Drivetrain Configuration and Design Objectives

8.2 Control Strategies

8.3 Parametric Design of a Drivetrain

8.4 Simulations

References

9. Design and Control Methodology of Series–Parallel (Torque and Speed Coupling) Hybrid Drivetrain

9.1 Drivetrain Configuration

9.2 Drivetrain Control Methodology

9.3 Drivetrain Parameters Design

9.4 Simulation of an Example Vehicle

References

10. Design and Control Principles of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

10.1 Statistics of Daily Driving Distance

10.2 Energy Management Strategy

10.3 Energy Storage Design

References

11. Mild Hybrid Electric Drivetrain Design

11.1 Energy Consumed in Braking and Transmission

11.2 Parallel Mild Hybrid Electric Drivetrain

11.3 Series–Parallel Mild Hybrid Electric Drivetrain

References

12. Peaking Power Sources and Energy Storages

12.1 Electrochemical Batteries

12.2 Ultracapacitors

12.3 Ultra-High-Speed Flywheels

12.4 Hybridization of Energy Storages

References

13. Fundamentals of Regenerative Braking

13.1 Braking Energy Consumed in Urban Driving

13.2 Braking Energy versus Vehicle Speed

13.3 Braking Energy versus Braking Power

13.4 Braking Power versus Vehicle Speed

13.5 Braking Energy versus Vehicle Deceleration Rate

13.6 Braking Energy on Front and Rear Axles

13.7 Brake System of EV, HEV, and FCV

References

14. Fuel Cells

14.1 Operating Principles of Fuel Cells

14.2 Electrode Potential and Current–Voltage Curve

14.3 Fuel and Oxidant Consumption

14.4 Fuel Cell System Characteristics

14.5 Fuel Cell Technologies

14.6 Fuel Supply

14.7 Non-Hydrogen Fuel Cells

References

15. Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Drivetrain Design

15.1 Configuration

15.2 Control Strategy

15.3 Parametric Design

15.4 Design Example

References

16. Design of Series Hybrid Drivetrain for Off-Road Vehicles

16.1 Motion Resistance

16.2 Tracked Series Hybrid Vehicle Drivetrain Architecture

16.3 Parametric Design of the Drivetrain

16.4 Engine/Generator Power Design

16.5 Power and Energy Design of Energy Storage

References

17. Design of Full-Size Engine HEV with Optimal Hybridization Ratio

17.1 Design Philosophy of Full-Size Engine HEV

17.2 Optimal Hybridization Ratio

17.3 10–25 kW Electrical Drive Packages

17.4 Comparison with Commercially Available Passenger Cars

References

18. Power Train Optimization

18.1 Power Train Modeling Techniques

18.2 Defining Performance Criteria

18.3 Power Train Simulation Methods

18.4 Modular Power Train Structure

18.5 Optimization Problem

18.6 Case Studies: Optimization of Power Train Topology and Component Sizing

References

19. A User Guide for the Multiobjective Optimization Toolbox

19.1 About the Software

19.2 Software Structure

19.3 Capabilities and Limitations of the Software

Appendix: Technical Overview of Toyota Prius

Index

About the Authors

M. Ehsani is the Robert M. Kennedy Professor or Electrical engineering at Texas A&M University. From 1974 to 1981, he was a research engineer at the Fusion Research Center, University of Texas and with Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois, as a Resident Research Associate. Since 1981, he has been at Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas where he is now an endowed professor of electrical engineering and Director of the Advanced Vehicle Systems Research Program and the Power Electronics and Motor Drives Laboratory. He is the author of over 400 publications in pulsed-power supplies, high-voltage engineering, power electronics, motor drives, advanced vehicle systems, and sustainable energy engineering. He is the recipient of several Prize Paper Awards from the IEEE-Industry Applications Society, as well as over 100 other international honors and recognitions, including the IEEE Vehicular Society 2001 Avant Garde Award for "Contributions to the theory and design of hybrid electric vehicles." In 2003, he was selected for the IEEE Undergraduate Teaching Award "For outstanding contributions to advanced curriculum development and teaching of power electronics and drives." In 2005, he was elected as the Fellow of Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). He is the co-author of 17 books on power electronics, motor drives and advanced vehicle systems. He has over 30 granted or pending US and EU patents. His current research work is in power electronics, motor drives, hybrid vehicles and their control systems, and sustainable energy engineering. Dr. Ehsani has been a member of IEEE Power Electronics Society (PELS) AdCom, past Chairman of PELS Educational Affairs Committee, past Chairman of IEEE-IAS Industrial Power Converter Committee and past chairman of the IEEE Myron Zucker Student-Faculty Grant program. He was the General Chair of the IEEE Power Electronics Specialist Conference for 1990. He is the founder of IEEE Power and Propulsion Conference, the founding chairman of the IEEE VTS Vehicle Power and Propulsion and chairman of Convergence Fellowship Committees. In 2002 he was elected to the Board of Governors of VTS. He has also served on the editorial board of several technical journals and was the associate editor of IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics and IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology. He is a Life Fellow of IEEE, a past IEEE Industrial Electronics Society and Vehicular Technology Society Distinguished Speaker, IEEE Industry Applications Society and Power Engineering Society Distinguished Lecturer. He is also a registered professional engineer in the State of Texas.

Yimin Gao received his B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in mechanical engineering (major in development, design, and manufacturing of automotive systems) in 1982, 1986, and 1991, respectively, all from Jilin University of Technology, Changchun, Jilin, China. From 1982 to 1983, he worked as a vehicle design engineer in DongFeng Motor Company, Shiyan, Hubei, China. He finished a layout design of a 5-ton truck (EQ144) and participated in prototyping and testing. From 1983 to 1986, he was a graduate student in Automotive Engineering College of Jilin University of Technology, Changchun, Jilin, China. His working field was improvement of vehicle fuel economy by optimal matching of engine and transmission. From 1987 to 1992, he was a Ph.D. student in the Automotive Engineering College of Jilin University of Technology, Changchun, Jilin, China. During this period, he worked on research and development of legged vehicles, which can potentially operate in harsh environments where mobility is difficult for wheeled vehicles. From 1991 to 1995, he was an associate professor and automotive design engineer in the Automotive Engineering College of Jilin University of Technology. In this period, he taught undergraduate students the course of Automotive Theory and Design several rounds and graduate students the course of Automotive Experiment Technique two rounds. Meanwhile, he also conducted vehicle performance, chassis, and components analysis, and conducted automotive design including chassis design, power train design, suspension design, steering system design, and brake design. He jointed the Advanced Vehicle Systems Research Program at Texas A&M University in 1995 as a research associate. Since then, he has been working in this program on research and development of electric and hybrid electric vehicles. His research areas are mainly on the fundamentals, architecture, control, modeling, design of electric and hybrid electric drive trains and major components. He is a member of SAE.

Stefano Longo, after graduating in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, received his MSc in Control Systems from the University of Sheffield, UK, in 2007 and his PhD, also in Control Systems, from the University of Bristol, UK, in 2010. His PhD thesis was awarded the Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) Control and Automation Prize for significant achievements in the area of control engineering. In 2010, he was appointed to the position of Research Associate at Imperial College London, UK, in the Control and Power Group within the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, where he worked at the intersection of control systems design and hardware implementation. In 2012, he was appointed Lecturer (assistant professor) in Vehicle Electrical and Electronic Systems at Cranfield University, UK, within the Automotive Engineering department (now called the Advanced Vehicle Engineering Centre). From 2012 to 2016, he was also an Honorary Research Associate at Imperial College London. In 2017, Dr. Longo was promoted to the position of Senior Lecturer (Associate Professor) in Automotive Control and Optimization and he has been the Course Director for the MSc in Automotive Mechatronics since 2014. Dr. Longo has published over 70 peer-reviewed research articles and another book titled Optimal and Robust Scheduling for Networked Control Systems (CRC Press 2017). He teaches various postgraduate courses in automotive mechatronics, optimization and control, supervises PhD students, and conducts academic research and consultancy. Dr. Longo is a senior member of the IEEE, an associate editor of the Elsevier Journal on Mechatronics, a technical editor and reviewer for many IEEE and IFAC journals, a chartered engineer and elected executive member of the IET Control & Automation Network, a member of the IFAC technical committee on Mechatronic Systems and Automotive Control, and a fellow of the Higher Education Academy.

Kambiz M Ebrahimi, Ph.D., received his BSc degree in mechanical engineering from Plymouth Polytechnic, UK, his M.Eng degree in systems engineering from UWIST, University of Wales, and his PhD in dynamics and mathematical modeling from Cardiff University, UK. Currently, he is professor of advanced propulsion in the aeronautical and automotive engineering department in Loughborough University, UK. Before joining Loughborough, he worked as a research assistant in the University of Wales working on model-based condition monitoring on a EU project and at the University of Bradford on distributed—lumped modeling and least effort control strategies. Subsequently, he became a lecturer, reader, and professor of mechanical engineering at the University of Bradford, UK. His main research interests are in systems and control theory; multivariable and largescale systems; modeling and characterization of mechatronic systems; energy management and control of hybrid power trains; system monitoring, fault diagnosis and turbomachinery tip-timing; hybrid, electric, L category vehicles. He is the author and co-author of more than 100 articles in national and international journals and conferences. He is a chartered mechanical engineer and member of ASME and SAE and the chair and organizer of Powertrain Modelling and Control Conference since 2012; a member of Editorial Board, International Journal of Powertrains, since 2012; and the Organizer of Meeting the Challenges in Powertrain Testing, in 2009. He is also a member of the Editorial Board for the Journal of Multibody Dynamics, Part K, Proceeding of IMechE, as well as the Co-Editor of: Application of Multi-Variable System Techniques, Professional Engineering Publishing, 1998. Co-Editor of: Multi Body Dynamics, Professional Engineering Publishing, 2000. He is actively involved in research collaboration with industry through contacts such as with AVL, Ford Motor Company, Cummins Turbocharger Technologies, Jaguar, and Land Rover.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TEC007000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electrical
TEC008000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electronics / General
TEC009070
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Mechanical