Modern Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology: 2nd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Modern Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology

2nd Edition

By Nduka Okafor, Benedict C. Okeke

CRC Press

466 pages | 3 Color Illus. | 84 B/W Illus.

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Description

The field of industrial microbiology involves a thorough knowledge of the microbial physiology behind the processes in the large-scale, profit-oriented production of microbe-related goods which are the subject of the field. In recent times a paradigm shift has occurred, and a molecular understanding of the various processes by which plants, animals and microorganisms are manipulated is now central to industrial microbiology. Thus the various applications of industrial microbiology are covered broadly, with emphasis on the physiological and genomic principles behind these applications. Relevance of the new elements such as bioinformatics, genomics, proteomics, site-directed mutation and metabolic engineering, which have necessitated the paradigm shift in industrial microbiology are discussed.

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

Introduction of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology

Definition of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology

Characteristics of Industrial Microbiology

Patents and Intellectual Property Rights in Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology

The Word ‘Fermentation’ in Industrial Microbiology

Organizational Set-up in an Industrial Microbiology Establishment

 

BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF PRODUCTIVITY IN INDUSTRIAL MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY

Microorganisms in Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology

Nature of Cells of Living Systems

Classification of Living Organisms into three Domains

Taxonomic Grouping of Industrial Microorganism

Important Characteristics of Industrial Microbes

Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics in Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology

Protein Synthesis

The Polymerase Chain Reaction

Microarrays

Sequencing of DNA

Identification of Genes in DNA Fragments

Metagenomics

Nature of Bioinformatics

Nutrient Media for Cultivation of Industrial Microorganisms and Production of Microbial Products

The Basic Nutrient Requirements of Industrial Media

Criteria for Raw Materials in Industrial Media

Raw Materials Used in Compounding Industrial Media

Growth Factors

Water

Sources of Components of Industrial Media

Plant Waste Materials in Industrial Microbiology Media: Saccharification of Polysaccharides

Biosynthetic Pathways for Metabolic Products of Microorganisms

The Nature of Metabolic Pathways

Industrial Microbiological Products as Primary and Secondary Metabolites

Trophophase-Idiophase Relationships in the Production of Secondary Products

Role of Secondary Metabolites in the Physiology of Organisms Producing Them

Pathways for the Synthesis of Primary and Secondary Metabolites of Industrial Importance

Carbon Pathways for the Formation of Industrial Products Derived from Primary Metabolism

Carbon Pathways for the Formation of Products of Microbial Secondary Metabolism of Industrial Importance

Processes for Overproduction of Microbial Metabolites for Industrial Applications

Mechanisms Enabling Microorganisms to Avoid Overproduction of Primary Metabolic Products Through Enzyme Regulation

Derangement or Bypassing of Regulatory Mechanisms for the Overproduction of Primary Metabolites

Regulation of Overproduction in Secondary Metabolites

Empirical Methods Employed to Disorganize Regulatory Mechanisms in Secondary Metabolite Production

Selection and Improvement of Industrial Organisms for Biotechnological Applications

Sources of Microorganisms Used in Biotechnology

Strain Improvement

Methods of Preservation of the Gene Pool in Industrial Organisms and Culture Collections

The Importance of Culture Collections in Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology

Types of Culture Collections

Handling Culture Collections

Methods of Preserving Microorganisms

BASIC OPERATIONS IN INDUSTRIAL FERMENTATIONS

Fermentors and Operation of Fermentation Equipment

Definition of a Fermentor

The Aerated Stirred-Tank Batch Fermentor

Anaerobic Batch Fermentors

Fermentor Configurations

Fed-batch Cultivation

Design of New Fermentors Based on the Physiology of the Organisms: Air Lift Fermentors

Microbial Experimentation in the Fermentation Industry: The Place of the Pilot Plant

Inoculum Preparation

Surface or Solid State Fermentors

Downstream Processing: Extraction of Fermentation Products

Solids (Insolubles) Removal

Primary Product Isolation

Purification

Product Isolation

Significance and Processes of Sterility in Industrial Microbiology

The Basis of Loss by Contaminants

Methods of Achieving Sterility

Aspects of Sterilization in Industry

Viruses (Phages) in Industrial Microbiology

 

 

PRODUCTION OF METABOLITES AS BULK CHEMICALS OR AS INPUTS IN OTHER PROCESSES

 

Biocatalysts, Immobilized Enzymes and Immobilized Cells

Enzymes Produced by Microorganisms

Classification of Enzymes

Uses of Enzymes in Industry

Production of Enzymes

Immobilized Biocatalysts: Enzymes and Cells

Bioreactor Designs Used in Biocatalysis

Practical Application of Immobilized Biological Catalyst Systems

Manipulation of Microorganisms for Higher Yield of Enzymes

Production of Biofuel and Industrial Alcohol

Biofuel

Industrial Alcohol Production

Production of Organic Acids

Organic Acids

Production of Amino Acids by Fermentation

Uses of Amino Acids

Methods for Amino Acid Production

Production of Glutamic Acid by Wild Type Bacteria

Production of Amino Acids by Mutants

Improvements in the Production of Amino Acids Using Metabolically Engineered Organisms

Fermenter Production of Amino Acid

Mining Microbiology: Bioleaching by Microorganisms

Bioleaching

Commercial Leaching Methods

Microbiology of the Leaching Process

Leaching of Some Metal Sulfides

Environmental Conditions Affecting Bacterial Leaching

USE OF WHOLE CELLS FOR FOOD RELATED PURPOSES

Single Cell Protein Production

Substrates for Single Cell Protein Production

Microorganisms Used in SCP Production

Use of Autotrophic Microorganisms in SCP Production

Safety of Single Cell Protein

Nutritional Value of Single Cell Protein

 

 

Yeast Production

Production of Baker’s Yeast

Food Yeasts

Alcohol Yeasts

Feed Yeasts

Yeast Products

Production of Microbial Insecticides

Alternatives to Chemical Insecticides

Biological Control of Insects

Production of Biological Insecticides

Bioassay of Biological Insecticides

Formulation and Use of Bioinsecticides

Safety Testing of Bioinsecticides

Search and Development of New Bioinsecticides

Production of Rhizobium Biofertilizer

Biology of Rhizobium

Fermentation of Rhizobia

Inoculant Packaging for Use

Quality Control

Production of Fermented Foods

Introduction

Fermented Food from Wheat: Bread

Fermented Foods Made from Milk

Fermented Foods from Corn

Fermented Foods from Cassava: Garri, Foo-Foo, Chikwuange, Kokonte, Bikedi, and Cinguada Fermented Vegetables

Fermentations for the Production of the Stimulant Beverages: Coffee, and Cocoa

Fermented Foods Derived from Legumes and Oil Seeds

ALCOHOL-BASED FERMENTATION INDUSTRIES

Production of Beer: Raw Materials and Brewing Processes

Barley Beers

Sorghum Beers

Production of Wines and Spirits

Grape Wines

Palm Wine

The Distilled Alcoholic (or Spirit) Beverages

 

Production of Vinegar

Uses

Measurement of Acetic Acid in Vinegar

Types of Vinegar

Organisms Involved

Manufacture of Vinegar

Processing of Vinegar

PRODUCTION OF COMMODITIES OF MEDICAL IMPORTANCE

Production of Antibiotics and Anti-Tumor Agents

Classification and Nomenclature of Antibiotics

Beta-Lactam Antibiotics

The Search for New Antibiotics

Combating Resistance and Expanding the Effectiveness of Existing Antibiotics

Antitumor Antibiotics

Newer Methods for the Search for Antibiotic and Antitumor Drugs

Production of Ergot Alkaloids

Nature of Ergot Alkaloids

Uses of Ergot Alkaloids and their Derivatives

Production of Ergot Alkaloids

Physiology of Alkaloid Production

Microbial Transformation of Steroids and Sterols

Nature and Use of Steroids and Sterols

Uses of Steroids and Sterols

Manufacture of Steroids

Screening for Microorganisms

Vaccines

Nature and Importance of Vaccines

Body Defenses against Communicable Diseases

Traditional and Modern Methods of Vaccine Production

Production of Vaccines

Control of Vaccines

Vaccine Production versus Other Aspects of Industrial Microbiology

Drug Discovery in Microbial Metabolites: The Search for Microbial Products with Bioactive Properties

Conventional Processes of Drug Discovery

Newer Methods of Drug Discovery

Approval of New Antibiotic and other Drugs by the Regulating Agency

 

WASTE DISPOSAL

Treatment of Wastes in Industry

Methods for the Determination of Organic Matter Content in Waste Waters

Wastes from Major Industries

Systems for the Treatment of Wastes

Treatment of the Sludge: Anaerobic Breakdown of Sludge

Wastewater Disposal in the Pharmaceutical Industry

About the Authors

Nduka Okafor holds a bachelor’s degree from the University of London, England and a PhD from the University of Cambridge, England. He has taught and/or researched in Australia, Austria, the Netherlands, England and the USA. In the USA he has been at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI; Cornell University, Ithaca, NY; Furman University, Greenville, SC; the University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA and Clemson University, SC. He has acted as external examiner (graduate and undergraduate) at the University of Zimbabwe, the University of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, the University of Poona, India and the University of New South Wales, Australia. His books include Modern Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology (Science Publishers, Enfield, NH, USA), and Environmental Microbiology of Waste and Aquatic Systems (Springer, Dordrecht, the Netherlands).

Benedict C. Okeke is a Professor in the Department of Biology, Auburn University at Montgomery (AUM); where he is also a Distinguished Research Professor, Ida Belle Young Endowed Professor, Alumni Professor and the founding Director of the Bioprocessing and Biofuel Research Lab (BBRL). At AUM he received superior performance evaluations in all areas: research, teaching and service. Prof. Okeke received MS and PhD degrees from the University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland. He currently teaches industrial microbiology, environmental microbiology, special topics in biotechnology, general microbiology, and directed research. He has been an external examiner for numerous PhD students internationally. Professor Okeke did postdoctoral work at the University of California, Riverside; Gifu University, Japan; and the International Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Trieste, Italy. He has 60 technical research papers in peer reviewed journals, three US patents, numerous conference abstracts and research grants from different organizations. He served as an Associate Editor for Journal of Environmental Quality and in the editorial board of Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. Prof. Okeke is a member of the Society for Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, American Society for Microbiology, Phi Kappa Phi, Sigma Xi and the Alabama Academy of Science.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
MED009000
MEDICAL / Biotechnology
SCI010000
SCIENCE / Biotechnology
SCI045000
SCIENCE / Life Sciences / Biology / Microbiology